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Wyatt, F, Agnew D, Linde A, Sacks IS.  1983.  Borehole Stranimeter studies in Pinon flat observatory. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Yearbook 82, Washington DC. :533-538. Abstract
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Donner, S, Lin CJ, Hadziioannou C, Gebauer A, Vernon F, Agnew DC, Igel H, Schreiber U, Wassermann J.  2017.  Comparing direct observation of strain, rotation, and displacement with array estimates at Pinon Flat Observatory, California. Seismological Research Letters. 88:1107-1116.   10.1785/0220160216   AbstractWebsite

The unique instrument setting at the Pinon Flat Observatory in California is used to simultaneously measure 10 out of the 12 components, completely describing the seismic-wave field. We compare the direct measurements of rotation and strain for the 13 September 2015 M-w 6.7 Gulf of California earthquake with array-derived observations using this configuration for the first time. In general, we find a very good fit between the observations of the two measurements with cross-correlation coefficients up to 0.99. These promising results indicate that the direct and array-derived measurements of rotation and strain are consistent. For the array-based measurement, we derived a relation to estimate the frequency range within which the array-derived observations provide reliable results. This relation depends on the phase velocity of the study area and the calibration error, as well as on the size of the array.

Wyatt, F, Bilham R, Beavan J, Sylvester AG, Owen T, Harvey A, Macdonald C, Jackson DD, Agnew DC.  1984.  Comparing Tiltmeters for Crustal Deformation Measurement - A Preliminary Report. Geophysical Research Letters. 11:963-966.   10.1029/GL011i010p00963   AbstractWebsite

A collection of high-precision tiltmeters is being operated at Piñon Flat Observatory, southern California, both to compare instruments and to measure tectonic deformation. We report on 1.2 years of data from four of these: two Michelson-Gale long fluid tiltmeters, one long center-pressure tiltmeter, and a shallow borehole tiltmeter. The three long-base instruments are all located on the same baseline, with a precise leveling line running between their end-monuments. At nontidal frequencies, only the two Michelson-Gale instruments show some coherence (γ² = .3 for periods of 2 to 4 days), while the center-pressure instrument is correlated with air temperature at periods from a few days to a few weeks. The most stable tilt record shows a secular rate of 0.28 µrad/a, which may be real. Over much longer times, leveling to specially stabilized benchmarks should confirm this. Comparing instruments has identified more and less successful measurement techniques; it appears that low-noise data will most probably be produced only by relatively complex and expensive instruments, though even for these, the operating costs over any reasonable lifetime will exceed the capital cost. Even the best existing sensors must be improved to measure continuous tectonic motions.

Fialko, Y, Simons M, Agnew D.  2001.  The complete (3-D) surface displacement field in the epicentral area of the 1999 M(w)7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, California, from space geodetic observations. Geophysical Research Letters. 28:3063-3066.   10.1029/2001gl013174   AbstractWebsite

We use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to derive continuous maps for three orthogonal components of the co-seismic surface displacement field due to the 1999 M-w 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake in southern California. Vertical and horizontal displacements are both predominantly antisymmetric with respect to the fault plane, consistent with predictions of linear elastic models of deformation for a strike-slip fault. Some deviations from symmetry apparent in the surface displacement data may result from complexity in the fault geometry.

Agnew, D.  1987.  The continuous measurement of crustal deformation. Methods of experimental physics 24, Part B, Geophysics. Field measurements. ( Sammis CG, Henyey TL, Celotta R, Eds.).:409-439., London; New-York: Academic press ; Abstract
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Agnew, DC, Owen S, Shen ZK, Anderson G, Svarc J, Johnson H, Austin KE, Reilinger R.  2002.  Coseismic Displacements from the Hector Mine, California, earthquake: Results from survey-mode global positioning system measurements. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92:1355-1364.   10.1785/0120000928   AbstractWebsite

We describe the collection and processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) data from 77 locations around the Hector Mine earthquake, which we use to estimate coseismic displacements related to this shock. The existence of pre-event GPS data, some collected to monitor postseismic displacements from the 1992 Landers earthquake and some to establish survey control in the meizoseismal area, provided a relatively dense coverage close to the rupture zone. The data available were collected mostly within the 2 years prior to the 1999 earthquake; we reobserved many points within a few days after the shock, and all within 6 months after. We include corrections for interseismic motion to provide the best value possible for coseismic motion caused by this earthquake. The displacements in general display the pattern expected for a strike-slip fault, though a few show significant vertical motion. The maximum horizontal displacement observed was 2 m; one station between fault ruptures showed little horizontal motion, but significant uplift.

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Fialko, Y, Sandwell D, Agnew D, Simons M, Shearer P, Minster B.  2002.  Deformation on nearby faults induced by the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Science. 297:1858-1862.   10.1126/science.1074671   AbstractWebsite

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations of surface deformation due to the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake reveal motion on several nearby faults of the eastern California shear zone. We document both vertical and horizontal displacements of several millimeters to several centimeters across kilometer-wide zones centered on pre-existing faults. Portions of some faults experienced retrograde (that is, opposite to their long-term geologic slip) motion during or shortly after the earthquake. The observed deformation likely represents elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes. The induced fault displacements imply decreases in the effective shear modulus within the kilometer-wide fault zones, indicating that the latter are mechanically distinct from the ambient crustal rocks.

Bock, Y, Agnew DC, Fang P, Genrich JF, Hager BH, Herring TA, Hudnut KW, King RW, Larsen S, Minster JB, Stark K, Wdowinski S, Wyatt FK.  1993.  Detection of Crustal Deformation from the Landers Earthquake Sequence Using Continuous Geodetic Measurements. Nature. 361:337-340.   10.1038/361337a0   AbstractWebsite

THE measurement of crustal motions in tectonically active regions is being performed increasingly by the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS)1,2, which offers considerable advantages over conventional geodetic techniques3,4. Continuously operating GPS arrays with ground-based receivers spaced tens of kilometres apart have been established in central Japan5,6 and southern California to monitor the spatial and temporal details of crustal deformation. Here we report the first measurements for a major earthquake by a continuously operating GPS network, the Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA)7-9 in southern California. The Landers (magnitude M(w) of 7.3) and Big Bear (M(w) 6.2) earthquakes of 28 June 1992 were monitored by daily observations. Ten weeks of measurements, centred on the earthquake events, indicate significant coseismic motion at all PGGA sites, significant post-seismic motion at one site for two weeks after the earthquakes, and no significant preseismic motion. These measurements demonstrate the potential of GPS monitoring for precise detection of precursory and aftershock seismic deformation in the near and far field.

Agnew, DC, Sieh KE.  1978.  Documentary Study of Felt Effects of Great California Earthquake of 1857. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 68:1717-1729. AbstractWebsite
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Owen, S, Anderson G, Agnew DC, Johnson H, Hurst K, Reilinger R, Shen ZK, Svarc J, Baker T.  2002.  Early postseismic deformation from the 16 October 1999 M-w 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake as measured by survey-mode GPS. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92:1423-1432.   10.1785/0120000930   AbstractWebsite

The 16 October 1999 (M-w 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake was the largest earthquake in California since the 1992 (M-w 7.3) Landers event. The Hector Mine earthquake occurred in the eastern Mojave Desert, where the density of permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations is relatively low. Since the earthquake, groups from the United States Geological Survey, University of Southern California, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, San Diego, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have made postseismic survey-mode observations to increase the spatial coverage of deformation measurements. A total of 55 sites were surveyed, with markers from a few meters to 100 km from the surface rupture. We present velocity estimates for the 32 sites that had enough repeated observations between 17 October 1999 and 26 March 2000 to provide reliable results; these survey-mode data complement the temporal and spatial coverage provided by newly installed Southern California Integrated Geodetic Network permanent GPS stations and future Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar postseismic results. We then use the postseismic velocity estimates to compute a simple afterslip model. Results of inversions show that the observed velocities are consistent with deep afterslip occuring underneath the coseismic rupture area.

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Jones, G, Hilde T, Sharman G, Agnew D.  1979.  Fault patterns in outer trench wals and their tectonic significance. Journal of Physical Earth. 26:S85-S101. Abstract
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Dixon, T, Blewitt G, Larson K, Agnew D, Hager B, Kroger P, Krumega L, Strange W.  1990.  GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California. EOS Trans. AGU. 71:1051-1053,1056. Abstract
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Sandwell, DT, Sichoix L, Agnew D, Bock Y, Minster JB.  2000.  Near real-time radar interferometry of the Mw 7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters. 27:3101-3104.   10.1029/1999gl011209   AbstractWebsite

The Hector Mine Earthquake (Mw 7.1, 16 October 1999) ruptured 45 km of previously mapped and unmapped faults in the Mojave Desert. The ERS-2 satellite imaged the Mojave Desert on 15 September and again on 20 October, just 4 days after the earthquake. Using a newly-developed ground station we acquired both passes and were able to form an interferogram within 20 hours of the second overflight. Estimates of slip along the main rupture are 1-2 meters greater than slip derived from geological mapping. The gradient of the interferometric phase reveals an interesting pattern of triggered slip on adjacent faults as well as a 30 mm deep sink hole along Interstate 40.

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Astiz, L, Shearer PM, Agnew DC.  2000.  Precise relocations and stress change calculations for the upland earthquake sequence in southern California. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 105:2937-2953.   10.1029/1999jb900336   AbstractWebsite

We relocate earthquakes that occurred near the 1988 (M-L = 4.7) and the 1990 (M-L = 5.5) Upland, California, earthquakes to map the fault geometry of the poorly defined San Jose fault and to test the static:Stress triggering hypothesis for this sequence. We adopt the L1 norm, waveform cross-correlation method of Shearer [1997] to obtain precise relocations for 1573 events: between 1981 and 1997 in the Upland area. To limit computation time, we only perform waveform cross correlation on 60 of the nearest neighbors of leach relocated event. Our final relocations show two linear features. The first is imaged,by the locations of the initial month of aftershocks of the 1988 Upland earthquake, which delineate a fault with a,dip angle of similar to 45 degrees between 7 and 9 km depth, consistent with the mainshock focal mechanism. The second linear feature is a plane, dipping at about 74 degrees from 2 to 9 km depth, which is illuminated by both the 1988:and 1990 Upland sequences, in agreement with the inferred location of the San Jose fault at depth. However, below 9 km the event locations become more diffuse, giving rise to two different interpretations of the fate of the San Jose fault at depth. One possibility is that the fault shallows at depth, consistent with our relocations: but not with the focal mechanism of a M-L = 4.7 deep aftershock. Alternatively, the. fault may be offset at depth by the more shallow dipping fault strand broken during the 1988 earthquake, Using these inferred fault geometries, we compute stress changes resulting from slip during the mainshocks to test whether the relocated aftershocks are consistent with the:hypothesis that more aftershocks occur where the change in static Coulomb failure stress is positive (on faults optimally oriented for failure). This requires an extension of previous models of changes in the failure stress to three dimensions and arbitrary fault orientation. We find that patterns of change in Coulomb failure stress differ little between the different fault geometries: all are nearly symmetric about the fault and so do not match the aftershock distribution, in which most of the off-fault events occur to one side of the fault plane.

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Nikolaidis, RM, Bock Y, de Jonge PJ, Shearer P, Agnew DC, vanDomselaar M.  2001.  Seismic wave observations with the Global Positioning System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 106:21897-21916.   10.1029/2001jb000329   AbstractWebsite

We describe the direct measurement of ground displacement caused by the Hector Mine earthquake in southern California (M-w 7.1, October 16, 1999). We use a new method of instantaneous positioning, which estimates site coordinates from only a single epoch of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, to measure dynamic as well as static displacements at 24 stations of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), with epicentral distances from 50 to 200 km. For sites outside the Los Angeles basin the observed displacements are well predicted by an elastic half-space model with a point shear dislocation; within the sedimentary basin we observe large displacements with amplitudes up to several centimeters that last as long as 3-4 min. Since we resolve the GPS phase ambiguities and determine site coordinates independently at each epoch, the GPS solution rate is the same as the receiver sampling rate. For the SCIGN data this is 0.033 Hz (once per 30 s), though sample rates up to 2 Hz are possible with the SCIGN receivers. Since the GPS phase data are largely uncorrelated at I s, a higher sampling rate would offer improved temporal resolution of ground displacement, so that in combination with inertial seismic data, instantaneous GPS positioning would in many cases significantly increase the observable frequency band for strong ground motions.

Bock, Y, Wdowinski S, Fang P, Zhang J, Williams S, Johnson H, Behr J, Genrich J, Dean J, vanDomselaar M, Agnew D, Wyatt F, Stark K, Oral B, Hudnut K, King R, Herring T, Dinardo S, Young W, Jackson D, Gurtner W.  1997.  Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Continuous measurements of regional crustal deformation between the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 102:18013-18033.   10.1029/97jb01379   AbstractWebsite

The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in 1990 across the Pacific-North America plate boundary to continuously monitor crustal deformation. We describe the development of the array and the time series of daily positions estimated for its first 10 sites in the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (M-W = 7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (M-W = 6.7), Northridge earthquakes. We compare displacement rates at four site locations with those reported by Feigl et al. [1993], which were derived from an independent set of Global Positioning System (GPS) and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements collected over nearly a decade prior to the Landers earthquake. The velocity differences for three sites 65-100 km from the earthquake's epicenter are of order of 3-5 mm/yr and are systematically coupled with the corresponding directions of coseismic displacement. The fourth site, 300 km from the epicenter, shows no significant velocity difference. These observations suggest large-scale postseismic deformation with a relaxation time of at least 800 days. The statistical significance of our observations is complicated by our incomplete knowledge of the noise properties of the two data sets; two possible noise models fit the PGGA data equally well as described in the companion paper by Zhang et al. [this issue]; the pre-landers data are too sparse and heterogeneous to derive a reliable noise model. Under a fractal white noise model for the PGGA data we find that the velocity differences for all three sites are statistically different at the 99% significance level. A white noise plus flicker noise model results in significance levels of only 94%, 43%, and 88%. Additional investigations of the pre-landers data, and analysis of longer spans of PGGA data, could have an important effect on the significance of these results and will be addressed in future work.

Feigl, KL, Agnew DC, Bock Y, Dong D, Donnellan A, Hager BH, Herring TA, Jackson DD, Jordan TH, King RW, Larsen S, Larson KM, Murray MH, Shen ZK, Webb FH.  1993.  Space Geodetic Measurement of Crustal Deformation in Central and Southern California, 1984-1992. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 98:21677-21712.   10.1029/93jb02405   AbstractWebsite

We estimate the velocity field in central and southern California using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1986 to 1992 and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations from 1984 to 1991. OUT core network includes 12 GPS sites spaced approximately 50 km apart, mostly in the western Transverse Ranges and the coastal Borderlands. The precision and accuracy of the relative horizontal velocities estimated for these core stations are adequately described by a 95% confidence ellipse with a semiminor axis of approximately 2 mm/yr oriented roughly north-south, and a semimajor axis of approximately 3 mm/yr oriented east-west. For other stations, occupied fewer than 5 times, or occupied during experiments with poor tracking geometries, the uncertainty is larger. These uncertainties are calibrated by analyzing the scatter in three types of comparisons: (1) multiple measurements of relative position (''repeatability''), (2) independent velocity estimates from separate analyses of the GPS and VLBI data, and (3) rates of change in baseline length estimated from the joint GPS+VLBI solution and from a comparison of GPS with trilateration. The dominant tectonic signature in the velocity field is shear deformation associated with the San Andreas and Garlock faults, which we model as resulting from slip below a given locking depth. Removing the effects of this simple model from the observed velocity field reveals residual deformation that is not attributable to the San Andreas fault. Baselines spanning the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, the Ventura basin, the Los Angeles basin, and the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt are shortening at rates of up to 5 +/- 1, 5 +/- 1, 5 +/- 1, and 2 +/- 1 mm/yr, respectively. North of the Big Bend, some compression normal to the trace of the San Andreas fault can be resolved on both sides of the fault. The rates of rotation about vertical axes in the residual geodetic velocity field differ by up to a factor of 2 from those inferred from paleomagnetic declinations. Our estimates indicate that the ''San Andreas discrepancy'' can be resolved to within the 3 mm/yr uncertainties by accounting for deformation in California between Vandenberg (near Point Conception) and the westernmost Basin and Range. Strain accumulation of 1-2 mm/yr on structures offshore of Vandenberg is also allowed by the uncertainties. South of the Transverse Ranges, the deformation budget must include 5 mm/yr between the offshore islands and the mainland.

King, NE, Argus D, Langbein J, Agnew DC, Bawden G, Dollar RS, Liu Z, Galloway D, Reichard E, Yong A, Webb FH, Bock Y, Stark K, Barseghian D.  2007.  Space geodetic observation of expansion of the San Gabriel Valley, California, aquifer system, during heavy rainfall in winter 2004-2005. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 112   10.1029/2006jb004448   AbstractWebsite

[1] Starting early in 2005, the positions of GPS stations in the San Gabriel valley region of southern California showed statistically significant departures from their previous behavior. Station LONG moved up by about 47 mm, and nearby stations moved away from LONG by about 10 mm. These changes began during an extremely rainy season in southern California and coincided with a 16-m increase in water level at a nearby well in Baldwin Park and a regional uplift detected by interferometric synthetic aperture radar. No equivalent signals were seen in GPS station position time series elsewhere in southern California. Our preferred explanation, supported by the timing and by a hydrologic simulation, is deformation due to recharging of aquifers after near-record rainfall in 2004 - 2005. We cannot rule out an aseismic slip event, but we consider such an event unlikely because it requires slip on multiple faults and predicts other signals that are not observed.

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Liu, HP, Sembera ED, Westerlund RE, Fletcher JB, Reasenberg P, Agnew DC.  1985.  Tidal Variation of Seismic Travel-Times in a massachusetts Granite Quarry. Geophysical Research Letters. 12:243-246.   10.1029/GL012i005p00243   AbstractWebsite

Conflicting results on tidal variation of seismic travel times exist in the literature. With improved methods, we have conducted a seismic survey at a Massachusetts granite quarry. The survey was conducted in the intervals (230d 23h, 231d11h) and (231d22h, 233d10h), 1983 (U.T.) along a 148 m baseline situated in nearly flat topography. The source for the present experiment was an air gun placed in a mud-filled pit. Travel times for the first five body wave extrema were analyzed. The results are: I. The 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th extrema show travel time variations; the 3rd extremum remains constant throughout the experiment. The magnitude of the fractional travel time variation, Δt/t, ranges from 0.5 to 0.9%. II. Changes in travel times of the 1st and 2nd extrema correspond to opposite changes in travel times of the 4th and 5th extrema. III. Two sets of nearly orthogonal joint systems are observed in the granite; the theoretical tidal strain in the direction perpendicular to the nearly vertical joints matches the travel time variations of the 1st and 2nd extrema whereas the tidal strain in the direction perpendicular to the nearly horizontal sheets matches the travel time variations of the 4th and 5th extrema, when a 4-hr delay is introduced for all the tidal strains. These results are interpreted in terms of the velocity changes of seismic rays as the two joint systems open and close due to the tidal stress.

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Shen, ZK, King RW, Agnew DC, Wang M, Herring TA, Dong D, Fang P.  2011.  A unified analysis of crustal motion in Southern California, 1970-2004: The SCEC crustal motion map. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 116   10.1029/2011jb008549   AbstractWebsite

To determine crustal motions in and around southern California, we have processed and combined trilateration data collected from 1970 to 1992, VLBI data from 1979 to 1992, and GPS data from 1986 to 2004: a long temporal coverage required in part by the occurrence of several large earthquakes in this region. From a series of solutions for station positions, we have estimated interseismic velocities, coseismic displacements, and postseismic motions. Within the region from 31 N to 38 N. and east to 114 W, the final product includes estimated horizontal velocities for 1009 GPS, 190 trilateration, and 16 VLBI points, with ties between some of these used to stabilize the solution. All motions are relative to the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF) as realized through the velocities of 20 GPS stations. This provides a relatively dense set of horizontal velocity estimates, with well-tested errors, for the past quarter century over the plate boundary from 31 N to 36.5 N. These velocities agree well with those from the Plate Boundary Observatory, which apply to a later time period. We also estimated vertical velocities, 533 of which have errors below 2 mm/yr. Most of these velocities are less than 1 mm/yr, but they show 2-4 mm/yr subsidence in the Ventura and Los Angeles basins and in the Salton Trough. Our analysis also included estimates of coseismic and postseismic motions related to the 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, and 2003 San Simeon earthquakes. Postseismic motions increase logarithmically over time with a time constant of about 10 days, and generally mimic the direction and relative amplitude of the coseismic offsets.

Meltzner, AJ, Sieh K, Abrams M, Agnew DC, Hudnut KW, Avouac JP, Natawidjaja DH.  2006.  Uplift and subsidence associated with the great Aceh-Andaman earthquake of 2004. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 111   10.1029/2005jb003891   AbstractWebsite

Rupture of the Sunda megathrust on 26 December 2004 produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. We define the pivot line separating these regions as a first step in defining the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture during that great M(w) approximate to 9.2 earthquake. In the region of the Andaman and Nicobar islands we rely exclusively on the interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model. At the southern limit of the great rupture we rely principally on field measurements of emerged coral microatolls. Uplift extends from the middle of Simeulue Island, Sumatra, at similar to 2.5 degrees N, to Preparis Island, Myanmar (Burma), at similar to 14.9 degrees N. Thus the rupture is similar to 1600 km long. The distance from the pivot line to the trench varies appreciably. The northern and western Andaman Islands rose, whereas the southern and eastern portion of the islands subsided. The Nicobar Islands and the west coast of Aceh province, Sumatra, subsided. Tilt at the southern end of the rupture is steep; the distance from 1.5 m of uplift to the pivot line is just 60 km. Our method of using satellite imagery to recognize changes in elevation relative to sea surface height and of using a tidal model to place quantitative bounds on coseismic uplift or subsidence is a novel approach that can be adapted to other forms of remote sensing and can be applied to other subduction zones in tropical regions.