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Johnson, HO, Agnew DC.  1995.  Monument Motion and Measurements of Crustal Velocities. Geophysical Research Letters. 22:2905-2908.   10.1029/95gl02661   AbstractWebsite

It is usually assumed in geodetic studies that measurement errors are independent from one measurement to the next and that the rate of deformation (velocity) is constant over the duration of the experiment. Any temporal correlation between measurements can substantially affect the uncertainty in this velocity estimate when it is determined;from the time series of measurements. One source of possible long-term. correlation is motion of the geodetic monument with respect to the ''deep'' crust. Available measurements suggest that this motion introduces errors that have the form of a random walk process. We show how such errors affect the uncertainty of velocity estimates. For a geodetic experiment of set duration we calculate the velocity uncertainty as a function of the number of observations and of the relative amount of correlated and uncorrelated noise. We find that 1) neglecting long-term temporal correlations makes the uncertainty in the estimated velocities much too small, and that 2) when the correlated and independent noise sources are of similar magnitude, the expected improvement in uncertainty from having more measurements (1/root N) is not realized; there is almost no improvement in some cases. We have also examined the effect of outliers (''blunders'') on the velocity uncertainty; for a frequency of outliers typical of geodetic field the previous two conclusions remain These results suggest that long-term correlations have a large effect on estimating deformation rates; unless these correlations are small, frequent observations give little advantage. If frequent observations are planned, the amount of correlated noise due to monument instability must be kept small if the full capabilities of the measurement technique are to be realized.

Johnson, HO, Agnew DC, Hudnut K.  1994.  Extremal Bounds on Earthquake Movement from Geodetic Data - Application to the Landers Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 84:660-667. AbstractWebsite

We present a technique to place quantifiable bounds on the moment of an earthquake from geodetic data, assuming known fault geometry. Application of this technique to the 1992 Landers earthquake shows that the moment must have been between 0.84 and 1.15 x 10(20) Nm with 90% confidence (M 7.25 to 7.34). We also find that to satisfy the data to this same level of confidence, the slip on the fault must have exceeded 7 m in at least one location, in good agreement with field mapping of the surface rupture.

Johnson, HO, Agnew DC, Wyatt FK.  1994.  Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Southern California. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 99:23951-23974.   10.1029/94jb01902   AbstractWebsite

The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady. Using an extensive set of precise geodetic measurements, we have developed a detailed picture of present-day deformation rates in southern California. This large set of measurements, amounting to nearly 2000 repeated distance measurements over the period 1973 to 1991, comes from the U.S. Geological Survey's Geodolite trilateration program, involving their combined Anza, Joshua Tree, and Salton networks. Building on previous results from these data, we are able to present the deformation field as estimates of the rate of horizontal strain accumulation in small four-station subnetworks of the overall 89-station network.; Using this technique, the spatial details of the 18-year average strain rate field can be determined. By correlating these spatial details with the tectonics of the region we are able to understand better how deformation is partitioned across this highly complex margin between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. Some of the more interesting findings of this study are that (1) the vast majority of strain rate estimates show a pattern of nearly pure shear as would be expected in a transcurrent environment, (2) the fastest accumulation of surface strain in southern California is along the San Jacinto Fault west of the Salton Sea, not along the San Andreas Fault, (3) strain accumulation rate along the length of the San Jacinto Fault increases toward the southeast as the fault enters the Imperial Valley, (4) a large area near the southern end of the Salton Sea, where the San Andreas Fault meets the Brawley Seismic Zone, is undergoing areal dilatation, which is in part consistent with the formation of crust at a spreading center, and (5) deformation at the transition zone between the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone also appears to be the result of crustal spreading.

Johnston, MJS, Linde AT, Agnew DC.  1994.  Continuous Borehole Strain in the San-Andreas Fault Zone Before, During, and After the 28 June 1992, M(W)7.3 Landers, California, Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 84:799-805. AbstractWebsite

High-precision strain was observed with a borehole dilational strainmeter in the Devil's Punchbowl during the 11:58 UT 28 June 1992 M(w) 7.3 Landers earthquake and the large Big Bear aftershock (M(w) 6.3). The strainmeter is installed at a depth of 176 m in the fault zone approximately midway between the surface traces of the San Andreas and Punchbowl faults and is about 100 km from the 85-km-long Landers rupture. We have questioned whether unusual amplified strains indicating precursive slip or high fault compliance occurred on the faults ruptured by the Landers earthquake, or in the San Andreas fault zone before and during the earthquake, whether static offsets for both the Landers and Big Bear earthquakes agree with expectations from geodetic and seismologic models of the ruptures and with observations from a nearby two-color geodimeter network, and whether postseismic behavior indicated continued slip on the Landers rupture or local triggered slip on the San Andreas. We show that the strain observed during the earthquake at this instrument shows no apparent amplification effects. There are no indications of precursive strain in these strain data due to either local slip on the San Andreas or precursive slip on the eventual Landers rupture. The observations are generally consistent with models of the earthquake in which fault geometry and slip have the same form as that determined by either inversion of the seismic data or inversion of geodetically determined ground displacements produced by the earthquake. Finally, there are some indications of minor postseismic behavior, particularly during the month following the earthquake.

Jones, G, Hilde T, Sharman G, Agnew D.  1979.  Fault patterns in outer trench wals and their tectonic significance. Journal of Physical Earth. 26:S85-S101. Abstract