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Donner, S, Lin CJ, Hadziioannou C, Gebauer A, Vernon F, Agnew DC, Igel H, Schreiber U, Wassermann J.  2017.  Comparing direct observation of strain, rotation, and displacement with array estimates at Pinon Flat Observatory, California. Seismological Research Letters. 88:1107-1116.   10.1785/0220160216   AbstractWebsite

The unique instrument setting at the Pinon Flat Observatory in California is used to simultaneously measure 10 out of the 12 components, completely describing the seismic-wave field. We compare the direct measurements of rotation and strain for the 13 September 2015 M-w 6.7 Gulf of California earthquake with array-derived observations using this configuration for the first time. In general, we find a very good fit between the observations of the two measurements with cross-correlation coefficients up to 0.99. These promising results indicate that the direct and array-derived measurements of rotation and strain are consistent. For the array-based measurement, we derived a relation to estimate the frequency range within which the array-derived observations provide reliable results. This relation depends on the phase velocity of the study area and the calibration error, as well as on the size of the array.

Dixon, T, Blewitt G, Larson K, Agnew D, Hager B, Kroger P, Krumega L, Strange W.  1990.  GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California. EOS Trans. AGU. 71:1051-1053,1056. Abstract
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Davis, PM, Rydelek PA, Agnew DC, Okamura AT.  1987.  Observation of Tidal Tilt on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 90:233-244.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1987.tb00682.x   AbstractWebsite

We have analysed the east-west tilt components, O1, K1, N2, M2 and S2 from a continuously recording tiltmeter located in Uwekahuna Vault on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, for the period 1971—79. Detailed analysis of the M2 component gives values of 30.9 ± 2.0 (95 per cent) nrad and 116.0 ± 2.0° for the amplitude and phase, respectively, compared to values of 48.5 nrad and 139.4° for the equilibrium tide. the total theoretical tide, found by summing the equilibrium and load tides, amounts to 37.2 nrad at a phase of 121.7°. the 20 per cent discrepancy with that observed may be due to an inaccurate cotical chart, cavity effects in the vault, strain—tilt coupling or an inappropriate solid earth model. In the vicinity of Hawaii (≤ 3°) two independent cotidal charts give almost identical results for the near field ocean load. At greater distances, we use the Schwiderski (1978) cotidal chart. We estimate that local cavity and strain—tilt coupling effects are less than 12 per cent owing to the agreement between geodetically determined and instrumental tilt but we can not rule out regional effects. Assuming these are small and the cotical charts correct, we find that the M2 results are brought into satisfactory agreement if, instead of using an average oceanic earth model in the (< 75 km) vicinity of Hawaii, we use an earth model with nearly one-half the oceanic rigidity. Such a low upper mantle and crustal rigidity is consistent with Kilauea's position above the thermal upwelling associated with the Hawaiian hotspot.