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Neira, C, Cossaboon J, Mendoza G, Hoh E, Levin LA.  2017.  Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of San Diego Bay marinas. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 114:466-479.   10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.009   Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000 ng g− 1. ‘Hotspots’ of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4–6 rings) were dominant (> 86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4–70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (> 90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial deposition and stormwater drainage from nearby streets and parking lots.

Neira, C, Delgadillo-Hinojosa F, Zirino A, Mendoza G, Levin LA, Porrachia M, Deheyn DD.  2009.  Spatial distribution of copper in relation to recreational boating in a California shallow-water basin. Chemistry and Ecology. 25:417-433.   10.1080/02757540903334197   AbstractWebsite

The overall effect of the number of boats on the copper (Cu) levels in the water column and sediment, along with their spatial variability within Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego Bay, California was examined. We identified a horizontal gradient of increasing dissolved Cu and Cu in sediment from outside to the head of SIYB which was coincident with the increasing number of boats. Spatial models of Cu distribution in water and sediment indicated the presence of 'hotspots' of Cu concentration. From outside to the head of SIYB, dissolved Cu ranged from 1.3 gL-1 to 14.6 gL-1 in surface water, and 2.0 gL-1 to 10.2 gL-1 in bottom water. Cu in sediment exceeded the Effect Range Low of 34mgkg-1 (i.e. where adverse effects to fauna may occur), with a peak concentration of 442mgkg-1 at the head of the basin. Free Cu++ in surface water was several orders of magnitude higher than in sediment porewater. High-resolution data of Cu species together with probability maps presented in this paper will allow managers to easily visualise and localise areas of impaired quality and to prioritise which areas should be targeted to improve Cu-related conditions.