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Constable, CG, McElhinny MW.  1985.  Holocene Geomagnetic Secuar Variation Records From Northeastern Australian Lake-Sediments. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 81:103-120.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1985.tb01353.x   AbstractWebsite

Secular variation records have been obtained from cores from Lakes Barrine and Eacham, two north-eastern Australian volcanic crater lakes. The results from several cores have been stratigraphically correlated and then stacked and smoothed. The chronology provided by radiocarbon dating indicates that the Lake Eacham sequence spans the last 5700 calendar years. The time-scale for the Lake Barrine record is less well constrained but it appears to cover about 1600 to 16200 yr BP.VGP paths for the sites show two periods of anticlockwise motion between about 5710 and 3980 BP and 10500 and 8800 BP. These times correspond to periods of anticlockwise motion in south-eastern Australian records (Barton & McElhinny) and Argentine records (Creer et al.), to within the uncertainties of the assigned time-scales.

Staudigel, H, Hart SR, Koppers AAP, Constable C, Workman R, Kurz M, Baker ET.  2004.  Hydrothermal venting at Vailulu'u Seamount: The smoking end of the Samoan chain. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 5   10.1029/2003gc000626   AbstractWebsite

[1] The summit crater of Vailulu'u Seamount, the youngest volcano in the Samoan chain, hosts an active hydrothermal system with profound impact on the ocean water column inside and around its crater ( 2 km wide and 407 m deep at a 593 m summit depth). The turbidity of the ocean water reaches 1.4 NTU, values that are higher than in any other submarine hydrothermal system. The water is enriched in hydrothermal Mn (3.8 ppb) and He-3 (1 x 10(-11) cc/g) and we measured water temperature anomalies near the crater floor up to 0.2degreesC. The hydrothermal system shows complex interactions with the ocean currents around Vailulu'u that include tidally-modulated vertical motions of about 40 - 50 m, and replenishment of waters into the crater through breaches in the upper half of the crater wall. Inside and outside potential density gradients suggest that hydrothermal venting exports substantial amounts of water from the crater (1.3 +/- 0.2 x 10(8) m(3)/day), which is in good agreement with fluxes obtained from a tracer release experiment inside the crater of Vailulu'u (0.8 x 10(8) m(3)/day [ Hart et al., 2003]). This mass flux, in combination with the differences in the inside and outside crater temperature, yields a power output of around 760 megawatts, the equivalent of 20 - 100 MOR black smokers. The Mn output of 300 kg/day is approximately ten times the output of a single black smoker.