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Panovska, S, Constable CG, Korte M.  2018.  Extending global continuous geomagnetic field reconstructions on timescales beyond human civilization. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:4757-4772.   10.1029/2018gc007966   AbstractWebsite

Study of the late Quaternary geomagnetic field contributes significantly to understanding the origin of millennial-scale paleomagnetic secular variations, the structure of geomagnetic excursions, and the long-term shielding by the geomagnetic field. A compilation of paleomagnetic sediment records and archeomagnetic and lava flow data covering the past 100ka enables reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field on such long-term scales. We use regularized inversion to build the first global, time-dependent, geomagnetic field model spanning the past 100ka, named GGF100k (Global Geomagnetic Field over the past 100 ka). Spatial parametrization of the model is in spherical harmonics and time variations with cubic splines. The model is heavily constrained by more than 100 continuous sediment records covering extended periods of time, which strongly prevail over the limited number of discrete snapshots provided by archeomagnetic and volcanic data. Following an assessment of temporal resolution in each sediment's magnetic record, we have introduced smoothing kernels into the forward modeling when assessing data misfit. This accommodates the smoothing inherent in the remanence acquisition in individual sediment paleomagnetic records, facilitating a closer fit to both high- and low-resolution records in regions where some sediments have variable temporal resolutions. The model has similar spatial resolution but less temporal complexity than current Holocene geomagnetic field models. Using the new reconstruction, we discuss dipole moment variations, the time-averaged field, and paleomagnetic secular variation activity. The new GGF100k model fills the gap in the geomagnetic power spectrum in the frequency range 100-1,000Ma(-1).

Panovska, S, Constable CG, Brown MC.  2018.  Global and regional assessments of paleosecular variation activity over the past 100 ka. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:1559-1580.   10.1029/2017gc007271   AbstractWebsite

We present a global compilation of paleomagnetic data spanning the past 100 ka. Sediment data comprise 61,687 declinations, 70,936 inclinations, and 69,596 relative paleointensities. Many sites are located in the northern Atlantic and western Pacific, with approximately twice as many data from the Northern Hemisphere as from the Southern Hemisphere. The 14,954 volcanic and archeomagnetic data are sparse, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Directional and intensity information are aggregated under the paleosecular variation (PSV) index to assess occurrence of excursions over the past 100 ka. The Laschamp excursion (approximate to 41 ka) is clearly defined across globally distributed sediment records with an average duration of 1,300 years. Regional stacks obtained using bootstrap resampling show a more pronounced Laschamp excursion in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern, and in the Atlantic Hemisphere compared with the Pacific. No anomalous indices occurred around the Mono Lake excursion or other periods in the bootstrap curves. This may result from low sedimentation rates, discrepancies in age scales, large age errors, and/or the lack of global character of any transitional events. These data and associated new uncertainty estimates for the sediment records provide a good foundation for global, time-dependent, spherical harmonic field modeling for the past 100 ka.

Ziegler, LB, Constable CG, Johnson CL, Tauxe L.  2011.  PADM2M: a penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0-2 Ma palaeomagnetic axial dipole moment. Geophysical Journal International. 184:1069-1089.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04905.x   AbstractWebsite

P>We present a new time-varying model for palaeomagnetic axial dipole moment (PADM) for the past 2 Myr and compare it with earlier virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) reconstructions which have been based on stacking and averaging scaled relative palaeointensity records. The PADM is derived from both absolute and relative palaeointensity data and constructed using a new penalized maximum likelihood (PML) approach to recover a cubic B-spline representation of axial-dipole field variations on million year timescales. The PML method is explicitly intended to reduce bias in estimating the true axial dipole moment that arises in average VADM reconstructions. We apply the PML method to a set of 96 032 published data (1800 palaeointensities from igneous rocks, 3300 archaeointensities and 86 relative palaeointensity time-series of variable lengths and resolutions). Two models are discussed: PADM2Mp is a trial model based on a subset of the nine longest available sedimentary records; PADM2M uses a comprehensive data set (76 records, 81 446 data; 10 records were eliminated) and is our preferred model. PADM2M has a lower mean than existing VADM reconstructions but shows similarities in long-period variability. Some differences in timing, amplitude and resolution of certain features can be attributed to variations in age assignments. Others result from our more comprehensive data set and a reduction in bias attributable to PML modelling. PADM2M has an average axial dipole moment over 0-2 Ma of 5.3 x 1022 Am2 with a standard deviation of 1.5 x 1022 Am2. The Brunhes chron average (6.2 x 1022 Am2) is higher than for earlier epochs of Matuyama (4.8 x 1022 Am2), as seen in some previous studies. The power spectrum for our model agrees with previous estimates of the global palaeomagnetic power spectrum for frequencies up to about 102 Myr-1. We see no distinctive evidence in the power spectrum for orbital forcing of geodynamo behaviour.