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Journal Article
Panovska, S, Constable CG, Korte M.  2018.  Extending global continuous geomagnetic field reconstructions on timescales beyond human civilization. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:4757-4772.   10.1029/2018gc007966   AbstractWebsite

Study of the late Quaternary geomagnetic field contributes significantly to understanding the origin of millennial-scale paleomagnetic secular variations, the structure of geomagnetic excursions, and the long-term shielding by the geomagnetic field. A compilation of paleomagnetic sediment records and archeomagnetic and lava flow data covering the past 100ka enables reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field on such long-term scales. We use regularized inversion to build the first global, time-dependent, geomagnetic field model spanning the past 100ka, named GGF100k (Global Geomagnetic Field over the past 100 ka). Spatial parametrization of the model is in spherical harmonics and time variations with cubic splines. The model is heavily constrained by more than 100 continuous sediment records covering extended periods of time, which strongly prevail over the limited number of discrete snapshots provided by archeomagnetic and volcanic data. Following an assessment of temporal resolution in each sediment's magnetic record, we have introduced smoothing kernels into the forward modeling when assessing data misfit. This accommodates the smoothing inherent in the remanence acquisition in individual sediment paleomagnetic records, facilitating a closer fit to both high- and low-resolution records in regions where some sediments have variable temporal resolutions. The model has similar spatial resolution but less temporal complexity than current Holocene geomagnetic field models. Using the new reconstruction, we discuss dipole moment variations, the time-averaged field, and paleomagnetic secular variation activity. The new GGF100k model fills the gap in the geomagnetic power spectrum in the frequency range 100-1,000Ma(-1).

Panovska, S, Constable CG, Brown MC.  2018.  Global and regional assessments of paleosecular variation activity over the past 100 ka. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:1559-1580.   10.1029/2017gc007271   AbstractWebsite

We present a global compilation of paleomagnetic data spanning the past 100 ka. Sediment data comprise 61,687 declinations, 70,936 inclinations, and 69,596 relative paleointensities. Many sites are located in the northern Atlantic and western Pacific, with approximately twice as many data from the Northern Hemisphere as from the Southern Hemisphere. The 14,954 volcanic and archeomagnetic data are sparse, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Directional and intensity information are aggregated under the paleosecular variation (PSV) index to assess occurrence of excursions over the past 100 ka. The Laschamp excursion (approximate to 41 ka) is clearly defined across globally distributed sediment records with an average duration of 1,300 years. Regional stacks obtained using bootstrap resampling show a more pronounced Laschamp excursion in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern, and in the Atlantic Hemisphere compared with the Pacific. No anomalous indices occurred around the Mono Lake excursion or other periods in the bootstrap curves. This may result from low sedimentation rates, discrepancies in age scales, large age errors, and/or the lack of global character of any transitional events. These data and associated new uncertainty estimates for the sediment records provide a good foundation for global, time-dependent, spherical harmonic field modeling for the past 100 ka.

Jackson, A, Parker RL, Sambridge M, Constable C, Wolf AS.  2018.  The inverse problem of unpolarized infrared spectroscopy of geological materials: Estimation from noisy random sampling of a quadratic form. American Mineralogist. 103:1176-1184.   10.2138/am-2018-6152   AbstractWebsite

We address the problem of unpolarized light spectroscopy of geological materials. Using infrared radiation, the aim of this technique is to learn about the absorbing species, such as hydroxyl. The use of unoriented samples leads to the need to perform a rigorous statistical analysis, so that the three principal absorbances of the crystal can be retrieved. We present here such an analysis based on a derivation of the probability density function for a single random measurement. Previous methods for retrieval of the absorbances are shown to be suboptimal, producing biased results that are sometimes even unphysical (e.g., negative estimates for an inherently positive quantity). The mathematical structure of the problem is developed to use the maximum likelihood estimation method, and we show how to optimize for the three absorbance parameters. This leads to good parameter retrieval on both synthetic and real data sets.

Cromwell, G, Johnson CL, Tauxe L, Constable CG, Jarboe NA.  2018.  PSV10: A global data set for 0-10 Ma time-averaged field and paleosecular variation studies. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:1533-1558.   10.1002/2017gc007318   AbstractWebsite

Globally distributed paleomagnetic data from discrete volcanic sites have previously been used for statistical studies of paleosecular variation and the structure of the time-averaged field. We present a new data compilation, PSV10, selected from high-quality paleodirections recorded over the past 10 Ma and comprising 2,401 sites from 81 studies. We require the use of modern laboratory and processing methods, a minimum of four samples per site, and within-site Fisher precision parameter, k(w), 50. Studies that identify significant tectonic effects or explicitly target transitional field states are excluded, thereby reducing oversampling of transitional time intervals. Additionally, we apply two approaches using geological evidence to minimize effects of short-term serial correlation. PSV10 is suitable for use in new global geomagnetic and paleomagnetic studies as it has greatly improved spatial coverage of sites, especially at equatorial and high latitudes. VGP dispersion is latitudinally dependent, with substantially higher values in the Southern Hemisphere than at corresponding northern latitudes when no VGP cutoff is imposed. Average inclination anomalies for 10 degrees latitude bins range from about +32 degrees to -7.52 degrees for the entire data set, with the largest negative values occurring at equatorial and mid-northern latitudes. New 0-5 Ma TAF models (LN3 and LN3-SC) based on selections of normal polarity data from PSV10 indicate a Non-zonal variations in field structure are observed near the magnetic equator and in regions of increased radial flux at high latitudes over the Americas, the Indian Ocean, and Asia.

Davies, CJ, Constable CG.  2018.  Searching for geomagnetic spikes in numerical dynamo simulations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 504:72-83.   10.1016/j.epsl.2018.09.037   AbstractWebsite

We use numerical dynamo simulations to investigate rapid changes in geomagnetic field intensity. The work is motivated by paleomagnetic observations of 'geomagnetic spikes', events where the field intensity rose and then fell by a factor of 2-3 over decadal timescales and a confined spatial region. No comparable events have been found in the historical record and so geomagnetic spikes may contain new and important information regarding the operation of the geodynamo. However, they are also controversial because uncertainties and resolution limitations in the available data hinder efforts to define their spatiotemporal characteristics. This has led to debate over whether such extreme events can originate in Earth's liquid core. Geodynamo simulations produce high spatio-temporal resolution intensity information, but must be interpreted with care since they cannot yet run at the conditions of Earth's liquid core. We employ reversing and non-reversing geodynamo simulations run at different physical conditions and consider various methods of scaling the results to allow comparison with Earth. In each simulation we search for 'extremal events', defined as the maximum intensity difference between consecutive time points, at each location on a 2 degrees latitude-longitude grid at Earth's surface, thereby making no assumptions regarding the spatio-temporal character of the event. Extremal events display spike-shaped time-series in some simulations, though they can often be asymmetric about the peak intensity. Maximum rates of change reach 0.75 mu Tyr(-1) in several simulations, the lower end of estimates for spikes, suggesting that such events can originate from the core. The fastest changes generally occur at latitudes > 50 degrees, which could be used to guide future data acquisitions. Extremal events in the simulations arise from rapid intensification of flux patches as they migrate across the core surface, rather than emergence of flux from within the core. The prospect of observing more spikes in the paleomagnetic record appears contingent on finding samples at the right location and time to sample this particular phase of flux patch evolution. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Avery, MS, Constable CG, Davies CJ, Gubbins D.  2019.  Spectral methods for analyzing energy balances in geodynamo simulations. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 286:127-137.   10.1016/j.pepi.2018.10.002   AbstractWebsite

The geomagnetic field displays complicated variations over a broad range of frequencies. These variations can be decomposed by frequency and linked to physical processes using frequency domain spectral methods. These spectral methods are well developed but have not previously been applied to study the energy balance of geodynamo simulations. We illustrate their potential by analyzing output from numerical dynamo simulations that have previously been studied for their apparently Earth-like properties. We show that high coherence between variations in axial dipole energy at the outer boundary of the simulation and total magnetic energy within the fluid shell occur at frequencies below similar to 0.1 kyr(-1). This suggests that paleomagnetically-observable signals with periods exceeding 10 kyrs contain information about magnetic energy changes in the bulk core. We then use spectral analysis to investigate differences in the rate of growth and decay of the axial dipole field. This behaviour, characterised by rapid growth and slow decay, is observed when signals with frequencies higher than 0.03 kyr(-1) have been filtered out. The origin of this asymmetric growth and decay is assessed using coherence spectra between rates of change in kinetic and magnetic energy, ohmic and viscous dissipation, and work done by the buoyancy and Lorentz forces. We show that asymmetry is associated with an imbalance between ohmic dissipation and work done by the Lorentz force; when changes in magnetic energy are more coherent with ohmic dissipation the field grows rapidly and decay slowly. Variations in Ohmic dissipation reflect changes in field strength in our models, while changes in viscous dissipation are associated with amplitude fluctuations of the large-scale flow that exists on millennial timescales. Our work shows that spectral analysis coupling observable and global products of the dynamo process can elucidate the physical origin of periodic processes occurring on timescales exceeding 10 kyrs.