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Genevey, A, Gallet Y, Constable CG, Korte M, Hulot G.  2008.  ArcheoInt: An upgraded compilation of geomagnetic field intensity data for the past ten millennia and its application to the recovery of the past dipole moment. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 9   10.1029/2007gc001881   AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a compilation of intensity data covering the past 10 millennia (ArcheoInt). This compilation, which upgrades the one of Korte et al. (2005), contains 3648 data and incorporates additional intensity and directional data sets. A large majority of these data (similar to 87%) were acquired on archeological artifacts, and the remaining similar to 13% correspond to data obtained from volcanic products. The present compilation also includes important metadata for evaluating the intensity data quality and providing a foundation to guide improved selection criteria. We show that similar to 50% of the data set fulfill reasonable reliability standards which take into account the anisotropic nature of most studied objects (potsherds), the stability of the magnetization, and the data dispersion. The temporal and geographical distributions of this sub-data set are similar to those of the main data set, with similar to 72% of the data dated from the past three millennia and similar to 76% obtained from western Eurasia. Approximately half of the selected intensity data are associated with at least an inclination value. To constrain the axial and full dipole evolution over the past three millennia requires that we avoid any overrepresentation of the western Eurasian data. We introduce a first-order regional weighting scheme based on the definition of eight widely distributed regions of 30 degrees width within which the selected data are numerous enough. The regional curves of virtual axial dipole moments (VADM) and of mixed VADM-virtual dipole moments (VDM) averaged over sliding windows of 200 years and 500 years testify for strong contributions from either equatorial dipole or nondipole components. The computation of global VADM and mixed VADM/VDM variation curves, assuming an equal weight for each region, yields a dipole evolution marked by a distinct minimum around 0 B.C./A.D. followed by a maximum around the third-fourth century A. D. A second minimum is present around the eighth century A. D. This variation pattern is compatible with the one deduced from earlier, more sophisticated analysis based on the inversion of both intensity and directional data. In particular, there is a good agreement among all VADMs and dipole moment estimates over the historical period, which further strengthens the validity of our weighting scheme.

Constable, C, Johnson C.  2005.  A paleomagnetic power spectrum. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 153:61-73.   10.1016/j.pepi.2005.03.015   AbstractWebsite

We construct a power spectrum of geomagnetic dipole moment variations or their proxies that spans the period range from some tens of million down to about 100 years. Empirical estimates of the spectrum are derived from the magnetostratigraphic time scale, from marine sediment relative paleointensity records, and from a time varying paleomagnetic field model for the past 7 kyr. The spectrum has the most power at long periods, reflecting the influence of geomagnetic reversals and in general decreases with increasing frequency (decreasing period). The empirical spectrum is compared with predictions from simple models. Discrepancies between the observed and predicted spectra are discussed in the context of: (i) changes in reversal rate, (ii) overall average reversal rate, (iii) cryptochrons, (iv) the time taken for a reversal to occur, and (v) long term paleosecular variations and average estimates of the field strength and variance from other sources. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Everett, ME, Constable S, Constable CG.  2003.  Effects of near-surface conductance on global satellite induction responses. Geophysical Journal International. 153:277-286.   10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01906.x   AbstractWebsite

A 3-D finite-element simulation of global electromagnetic induction is used to evaluate satellite responses in geomagnetic dipole coordinates for harmonic ring-current excitation of a three-layer mantle overlain by a realistic near-surface conductance distribution. Induced currents are modelled for lithospheric and asthenospheric upper-mantle conductivities in the range sigma= 10(-4) -0.1 S m(-1) . The magnetic scalar intensity B is calculated at a typical satellite altitude of 300 km. At short periods, T = 2 and 12 h, the induction signal owing to the near-surface conductance is large when a resistive upper mantle is present, but drops off with increasing mantle conductivity. At longer periods, T = 2 d, the near-surface induction signal is generally much smaller and nearly independent of upper-mantle conductivity. The near-surface induction signal is very sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the lithospheric mantle, but only moderately sensitive to that of the asthenospheric mantle. Induced currents are confined to the heterogeneous surface shell at periods of less than 2 h, and flow predominantly in the mantle at periods of longer than 2 d. In the intervening period range, induced currents are partitioned between the near-surface and the upper mantle. These results indicate the importance of carrying out a full 3-D analysis in the interpretation of satellite induction observations in the period range from hours to days.