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Gottschalk, J, Hodell DA, Skinner LC, Crowhurst SJ, Jaccard SL, Charles C.  2018.  Past carbonate preservation events in the deep southeast Atlantic Ocean (Cape Basin) and their implications for atlantic overturning dynamics and marine carbon cycling. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. 33:643-663.   10.1029/2018pa003353   AbstractWebsite

Micropaleontological and geochemical analyses reveal distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in the deep Southeast Atlantic (Cape Basin) during strong and prolonged Greenland interstadials that are superimposed on long-term (orbital-scale) changes in carbonate burial. These data suggest carbonate oversaturation of the deep Atlantic and a strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the most intense Greenland interstadials. However, proxy evidence from outside the Cape Basin indicates that AMOC changes also occurred during weaker and shorter Greenland interstadials. Here we revisit the link between AMOC dynamics and carbonate saturation in the deep Cape Basin over the last 400 kyr (sediment cores TN057-21,TN057-10, and Ocean Drilling Program Site 1089) by reconstructing centennial changes in carbonate preservation using millimeter-scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data. We observe close agreement between variations in XRF Ca/Ti, sedimentary carbonate content, and foraminiferal shell fragmentation, reflecting a common control primarily through changing deep water carbonate saturation. We suggest that the high-frequency (suborbital) component of the XRF Ca/Ti records indicates the fast and recurrent redistribution of carbonate ions in the Atlantic basin via the AMOC during both long/strong and short/weak North Atlantic climate anomalies. In contrast, the low-frequency (orbital) XRF Ca/Ti component is interpreted to reflect slow adjustments through carbonate compensation and/or changes in the deep ocean respired carbon content. Our findings emphasize the recurrent influence of rapid AMOC variations on the marine carbonate system during past glacial periods, providing a mechanism for transferring the impacts of North Atlantic climate anomalies to the global carbon cycle via the Southern Ocean.

Roach, LD, Charles CD, Field DB, Guilderson TP.  2013.  Foraminiferal radiocarbon record of northeast Pacific decadal subsurface variability. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 118:4317-4333.   10.1002/jgrc.20274   AbstractWebsite

The decadal dynamics of the subsurface North Pacific Ocean are largely inaccessible beyond sparse instrumental observations spanning the last 20 years. Here we present a approximate to 200 year long record of benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon (C-14), extracted at biennial resolution from the annually laminated sediments at the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) depocenter (approximate to 600 m). The close match between core top benthic foraminiferal C-14 values and the C-14 of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) suggests that benthic foraminifera faithfully capture the bottom water radiocarbon concentrations, as opposed to that of the deeper (>0.5 cm) sediment porewater zone. The full time series of benthic foraminiferal C-14 displays significant variability on decadal timescales, with excursions on the order of 40. These excursions are overprinted by a unidirectional trend over the late 20th century that likely reflects the sedimentary incorporation of bomb radiocarbon (via remineralized particulate organic carbon). We isolate this trend by means of a one-dimensional oxidation model, which considers the possible contribution of remineralized particles to the total ambient carbon pool. This oxidation model also considers the possible influence of carbon with a variety of sources (ages). Though variable oxidation of preaged carbon could exert a strong influence on benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon variability, the totality of evidence points to the vertical density structure along the Southern California Margin (SCM) as the primary driver of the SBB benthic foraminiferal C-14 record. For example, intervals characterized by significantly lower C-14 values correspond to periods of enhanced upwelling and subsurface equatorward flow along the SCM.

Herguera, JC, Herbert T, Kashgarian M, Charles C.  2010.  Intermediate and deep water mass distribution in the Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum inferred from oxygen and carbon stable isotopes. Quaternary Science Reviews. 29:1228-1245.   10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.009   AbstractWebsite

Intermediate ocean circulation changes during the last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North Pacific have been linked with Northern Hemisphere climate through air sea interactions, although the extent and the source of the variability of the processes forcing these changes are still not well resolved. The ventilated volumes and ages in the upper wind driven layer are related to the wind stress curl and surface buoyancy fluxes at mid to high latitudes in the North Pacific. In contrast, the deeper thermohaline layers are more effectively ventilated by direct atmosphere-sea exchange during convective formation of Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) in the Southern Ocean, the precursors of Pacific Intermediate Waters (PIW) in the North Pacific. Results reported here show a fundamental change in the carbon isotopic gradient between intermediate and deep waters during the LGM in the eastern North Pacific indicating a deepening of nutrient and carbon rich waters. These observations suggest changes in the source and nature of intermediate waters of Southern Ocean origin that feed PIW and enhanced ventilation processes in the North Pacific, further affecting paleoproductivity and export patters in this basin. Furthermore, oxygen isotopic results indicate these changes may have been accomplished in part by changes in circulation affecting the intermediate depths during the LGM. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lynch-Stieglitz, J, Curry WB, Oppo DW, Ninneman US, Charles CD, Munson J.  2006.  Meridional overturning circulation in the South Atlantic at the last glacial maximum. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 7   10.1029/2005gc001226   AbstractWebsite

The geostrophic shear associated with the meridional overturning circulation is reflected in the difference in density between the eastern and western margins of the ocean basin. Here we examine how the density difference across 30 degrees S in the upper 2 km of the Atlantic Ocean ( and thus the magnitude of the shear associated with the overturning circulation) has changed between the last glacial maximum and the present. We use oxygen isotope measurements on benthic foraminifera to reconstruct density. Today, the density in upper and intermediate waters along the eastern margin in the South Atlantic is greater than along the western margin, reflecting the vertical shear associated with the northward flow of surface and intermediate waters and the southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Waters below. The greater density along the eastern margin is reflected in the higher delta(18)O values for surface sediment benthic foraminifera than those found on the western margin for the upper 2 km. For the last glacial maximum the available data indicate that the eastern margin foraminifera had similar delta(18)O to those on the western margin between 1 and 2 km and that the gradient was reversed relative to today with the higher delta(18)O values in the western margin benthic foraminifera above 1 km. If this reversal in benthic foraminifera delta(18)O gradient reflects a reversal in seawater density gradient, these data are not consistent with a vigorous but shallower overturning cell in which surface waters entering the Atlantic basin are balanced by the southward export of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water.