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Maksymowicz, A, Chadwell CD, Ruiz J, Trehu AM, Contreras-Reyes E, Weinrebe W, Diaz-Naveas J, Gibson JC, Lonsdale P, Tryon MD.  2017.  Coseismic seafloor deformation in the trench region during the Mw8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. Scientific Reports. 7   10.1038/srep45918   AbstractWebsite

The M-w 8.8 megathrust earthquake that occurred on 27 February 2010 offshore the Maule region of central Chile triggered a destructive tsunami. Whether the earthquake rupture extended to the shallow part of the plate boundary near the trench remains controversial. The up-dip limit of rupture during large subduction zone earthquakes has important implications for tsunami generation and for the rheological behavior of the sedimentary prism in accretionary margins. However, in general, the slip models derived from tsunami wave modeling and seismological data are poorly constrained by direct seafloor geodetic observations. We difference swath bathymetric data acquired across the trench in 2008, 2011 and 2012 and find similar to 3-5 m of uplift of the seafloor landward of the deformation front, at the eastern edge of the trench. Modeling suggests this is compatible with slip extending seaward, at least, to within similar to 6 km of the deformation front. After the M-w 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, this result for the Maule earthquake represents only the second time that repeated bathymetric data has been used to detect the deformation following megathrust earthquakes, providing methodological guidelines for this relatively inexpensive way of obtaining seafloor geodetic data across subduction zone.

DeSanto, JB, Sandwell DT, Chadwell CD.  2016.  Seafloor geodesy from repeated sidescan sonar surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 121:4800-4813.   10.1002/2016jb013025   AbstractWebsite

Accurate seafloor geodetic methods are critical to the study of marine natural hazards such as megathrust earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes. We propose digital image correlation of repeated shipboard sidescan sonar surveys as a measurement of seafloor deformation. We test this method using multibeam surveys collected in two locales: 2500m deep lightly sedimented seafloor on the flank of a spreading ridge and 4300m deep heavily sedimented seafloor far from any plate boundary. Correlation of these surveys are able to recover synthetic displacements in the across-track (range) direction accurate to within 1m and in the along-track (azimuth) direction accurate to within 1-10m. We attribute these accuracies to the inherent resolution of sidescan data being better in the range dimension than the azimuth dimension. These measurements are primarily limited by the accuracy of the ship navigation. Dual-frequency GPS units are accurate to approximate to 10cm, but single-frequency GPS units drift on the order of 1m/h and are insufficient for geodetic application.

Blum, JA, Chadwell CD, Driscoll N, Zumberge MA.  2010.  Assessing slope stability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, using seafloor geodesy and CHIRP seismic data. Geophysical Research Letters. 37   10.1029/2010gl043293   AbstractWebsite

Seafloor slope instability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, poses risk to the region. Two prominent landslides, the Goleta and Gaviota slides, occupy the northern flank, with a scarp-like crack extending east from the headwall of the Gaviota slide towards the Goleta complex. Downslope creep across the crack might indicate an imminent risk of failure. Sub-bottom CHIRP profiles with <1 m accuracy across the crack exhibit no evidence of internal deformation. Daily seafloor acoustic range measurements spanning the crack detected no significant motion above a 99% confidence level of +/- 7 mm/yr over two years of monitoring. These disparate data over different timescales suggest no active creep and that the crack is likely a relict feature that formed concomitantly with the Gaviota slide. Citation: Blum, J. A., C. D. Chadwell, N. Driscoll, and M. A. Zumberge (2010), Assessing slope stability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, using seafloor geodesy and CHIRP seismic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13308, doi: 10.1029/2010GL043293.

D'Spain, GL, Terrill E, Chadwell CD, Smith JA, Lynch SD.  2006.  Active control of passive acoustic fields: Passive synthetic aperture/Doppler beamforming with data from an autonomous vehicle. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 120:3635-3654.   10.1121/1.2346177   AbstractWebsite

The maneuverability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with hull-mounted arrays provides the opportunity to actively modify received acoustic fields to optimize extraction of information. This paper uses ocean acoustic data collected by an AUV-mounted two-dimensional hydrophone array, with overall dimension one-tenth wavelength at 200-500 Hz, to demonstrate aspects of this control through vehicle motion. Source localization is performed using Doppler shifts measured at a set of receiver velocities by both single elements and a physical array. Results show that a source in the presence of a 10-dB higher-level interferer having exactly the same frequency content (as measured by a stationary receiver) is properly localized and that white-noise-constrained adaptive beamforming applied to the physical aperture data in combination with Doppler bearnforming provides greater spatial resolution than physical-aperture-alone bearnforming and significantly lower sidelobes than single element Doppler beamforming. A new broadband beamformer that adjusts for variations in vehicle velocity on a sample by sample basis is demonstrated with data collected during a high-acceleration maneuver. The importance of including the cost of energy expenditure in determining optimal vehicle motion is demonstrated through simulation, further illustrating how the vehicle characteristics are an integral part of the signal/array processing structure. (c) 2006 Acoustical Society of America.

Zimmerman, R, D'Spain GL, Chadwell CD.  2005.  Decreasing the radiated acoustic and vibration noise of a mid-size AUV. Ieee Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 30:179-187.   10.1109/joe.2004.836996   AbstractWebsite

An Odyssey IIb autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) made by Bluefin Robotics, Inc., was acquired by the Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography, to conduct research in underwater acoustics as well as provide a platform for other scientific studies. The original Odyssey IIb tail cone was replaced with a ducted fan, vectored thrust system installed on vehicles currently sold by Bluefin. In initial sea tests with the new thrust system, the acoustic self noise levels of the vehicle while underway were 20 to 50 dB higher than typical ocean background noise levels, preventing the vehicle's use as a receiver of low level sounds. Controlled tests were performed to characterize the radiated and vibration noise of the AUV propulsion and actuators. Once this baseline was established, changes were made, mostly to the tail cone propulsion, to decrease the vehicle's self noise. The resulting self noise levels of the AUV from 10 Hz up to 10 kHz measured while underway by a hydrophone mounted on the AUV's inner shroud now are at or below typical shallow water background noise levels except in three bands; below 250 Hz, around 500 Hz, and from 0.9 to 2.0 kHz. The goal of this paper is to describe these changes and their effects in lowering vehicle noise levels.

Spiess, FN, Chadwell CD, Hildebrand JA, Young LE, Purcell GH, Dragert H.  1998.  Precise GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points for tectonic studies. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 108:101-112.   10.1016/s0031-9201(98)00089-2   AbstractWebsite

Global networks for crustal strain measurement provide important constraints for studies of tectonic plate motion and deformation. To date, crustal strain measurements have been possible only in terrestrial settings: on continental plates and island sites within oceanic plates. We report the development of technology for horizontal crustal motion determination at seafloor sites, allowing oceanic plates to be monitored where islands are not available. Seafloor crustal monitoring is an important component of global strain measurement because about 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, and this region contains most of the tectonic plate boundaries and zones of crustal deformation. Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and underwater acoustics, we have established a geodetic reference site on the Juan de Fuca plate at 2.6 km depth, approximately 150 km off the northwest coast of North America. We measure the baselines between this site and two terrestrial GPS stations on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The Juan de Fuca plate site is an appropriate setting to develop seafloor observation methods, since it is a well studied area, easily accessible from west coast Canadian and United States ports. Determination of seafloor motion at this site addresses questions related to convergence between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates across the Cascadia Subduction Zone. At the Juan de Fuca seafloor geodetic reference site, we installed precision acoustic transponders on the seafloor, and measured ranges to them from a sound source at a surface platform (ship or buoy), The platform is equipped with a set of three GPS antennas allowing determination of the sound source position at times of signal transmission and reception. Merging the satellite and acoustic data allows determination of the transponder network location in global reference frame coordinates. Data processing to date suggests repeatabilities of +/-0.8 cm north and +/- 3.9 cm east in the seafloor transponder network position relative to reference points on Vancouver Island. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Chadwell, D, Spiess F, Hildebrand J, Young L, Purcell, George J, Dragert H.  1998.  Deep-sea geodesy; monitoring the ocean floor. GPS World. 9:44-50,52-55., Eugene, OR, United States (USA): Aster Pub. Corp., Eugene, OR AbstractWebsite
Chadwell, CD, Spiess FN, Hildebrand JA, Young LE, Purcell, George J, Dragert H, Segawa J, Fujimoto H, Okubo S.  1997.  Sea floor strain measurement using GPS and acoustics. International Association of Geodesy Symposia. 117:682-689., New York, NY, International (III): Springer-Verlag, New York, NY AbstractWebsite