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Burgmann, R, Chadwell D.  2014.  Seafloor geodesy. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol 42. 42:509-534.   10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-054953   AbstractWebsite

Seafloor geodetic techniques allow for measurements of crustal deformation over the similar to 70% of Earth's surface that is inaccessible to the standard tools of tectonic geodesy. Precise underwater measurement of position, displacement, strain, and gravity poses technical, logistical, and cost challenges. Nonetheless, acoustic ranging; pressure sensors; underwater strain-, tilt- and gravimeters; and repeat multibeam sonar and seismic measurements are able to capture small-scale or regional deformation with approximately centimeter-level precision. Pioneering seafloor geodetic measurements offshore Japan, Cascadia, and Hawaii have substantially contributed to advances in our understanding of the motion and deformation of oceanic tectonic plates, earthquake cycle deformation in subduction zones, and the deformation of submarine volcanoes. Nontectonic deformation related to down-slope mass movement and underwater extraction of hydrocarbons or other resources represent other important targets. Recent technological advances promise further improvements in precision as well as the development of smaller, more autonomous, and less costly seafloor geodetic systems.

Blum, JA, Chadwell CD, Driscoll N, Zumberge MA.  2010.  Assessing slope stability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, using seafloor geodesy and CHIRP seismic data. Geophysical Research Letters. 37   10.1029/2010gl043293   AbstractWebsite

Seafloor slope instability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, poses risk to the region. Two prominent landslides, the Goleta and Gaviota slides, occupy the northern flank, with a scarp-like crack extending east from the headwall of the Gaviota slide towards the Goleta complex. Downslope creep across the crack might indicate an imminent risk of failure. Sub-bottom CHIRP profiles with <1 m accuracy across the crack exhibit no evidence of internal deformation. Daily seafloor acoustic range measurements spanning the crack detected no significant motion above a 99% confidence level of +/- 7 mm/yr over two years of monitoring. These disparate data over different timescales suggest no active creep and that the crack is likely a relict feature that formed concomitantly with the Gaviota slide. Citation: Blum, J. A., C. D. Chadwell, N. Driscoll, and M. A. Zumberge (2010), Assessing slope stability in the Santa Barbara Basin, California, using seafloor geodesy and CHIRP seismic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13308, doi: 10.1029/2010GL043293.