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Bradley, JM, Svistunenko DA, Pullin J, Hill N, Stuart RK, Palenik B, Wilson MT, Hemmings AM, Moore GR, Le Brun NE.  2019.  Reaction of O-2 with a diiron protein generates a mixed-valent Fe2+/Fe3+ center and peroxide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:2058-2067.   10.1073/pnas.1809913116   AbstractWebsite

The gene encoding the cyanobacterial ferritin SynFtn is up-regulated in response to copper stress. Here, we show that, while SynFtn does not interact directly with copper, it is highly unusual in several ways. First, its catalytic diiron ferroxidase center is unlike those of all other characterized prokaryotic ferritins and instead resembles an animal H-chain ferritin center. Second, as demonstrated by kinetic, spectro-scopic, and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic data, reaction of O-2 with the di-Fe2+ center results in a direct, one-electron oxidation to a mixed-valent Fe2+/Fe3+ form. Iron-O-2 chemistry of this type is currently unknown among the growing family of proteins that bind a diiron site within a four alpha-helical bundle in general and ferritins in particular. The mixed-valent form, which slowly oxidized to the more usual di-Fe3+ form, is an intermediate that is continually generated during mineralization. Peroxide, rather than superoxide, is shown to be the product of O-2 reduction, implying that ferroxidase centers function in pairs via long-range electron transfer through the protein resulting in reduction of O-2 bound at only one of the centers. We show that electron transfer is mediated by the transient formation of a radical on Tyr40, which lies similar to 4 angstrom from the diiron center. As well as demonstrating an expansion of the iron-O-2 chemistry known to occur in nature, these data are also highly relevant to the question of whether all ferritins mineralize iron via a common mechanism, providing unequivocal proof that they do not.

Paz-Yepes, J, Brahamsha B, Palenik B.  2013.  Role of a Microcin-C-like biosynthetic gene cluster in allelopathic interactions in marine Synechococcus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110:12030-12035.   10.1073/pnas.1306260110   AbstractWebsite

Competition between phytoplankton species for nutrients and light has been studied for many years, but allelopathic interactions between them have been more difficult to characterize. We used liquid and plate assays to determine whether these interactions occur between marine unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. We have found a clear growth impairment of Synechococcus sp. CC9311 and Synechococcus sp. WH8102 when they are cultured in the presence of Synechococcus sp. CC9605. The genome of CC9605 contains a region showing homology to genes of the Escherichia coli Microcin C (McC) biosynthetic pathway. McC is a ribosome-synthesized peptide that inhibits translation in susceptible strains. We show that the CC9605 McC gene cluster is expressed and that three genes (mccD, mccA, and mccB) are further induced by coculture with CC9311. CC9605 was resistant to McC purified from E. coli, whereas strains CC9311 and WH8102 were sensitive. Cloning the CC9605 McC biosynthetic gene cluster into sensitive CC9311 led this strain to become resistant to both purified E. coli McC and Synechococcus sp. CC9605. A CC9605 mutant lacking mccA1, mccA2, and the N-terminal domain of mccB did not inhibit CC9311 growth, whereas the inhibition of WH8102 was reduced. Our results suggest that an McC-like molecule is involved in the allelopathic interactions with CC9605.

Tetu, SG, Brahamsha B, Johnson DA, Tai V, Phillippy K, Palenik B, Paulsen IT.  2009.  Microarray analysis of phosphate regulation in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp WH8102. ISME Journal. 3:835-849.   10.1038/ismej.2009.31   AbstractWebsite

Primary productivity of open ocean environments, such as those inhabited by marine picocyanobacteria, is often limited by low inorganic phosphate (P). To observe how these organisms cope with P starvation, we constructed a full genome microarray for Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and compared differences in gene expression under P-replete and P-limited growth conditions, including both early P stress, during extracellular alkaline phosphatase induction, and late P stress. A total of 36 genes showed significant upregulation (>log(2) fold) whereas 23 genes were highly downregulated at the early time point; however, these changes in expression were maintained during late P stress for only 5 of the upregulated genes. Knockout mutants were constructed for genes SYNW0947 and SYNW0948, comprising a two-component regulator hypothesized to have a key function in regulating P metabolism. A high degree of overlap in the sets of genes affected by P stress conditions and in the knockout mutants supports this hypothesis; however, there is some indication that other regulators may be involved in this response in Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Consistent with what has been observed in many other cyanobacteria, the Pho regulon of this strain is comprised largely of genes for alkaline phosphatases, P transport or P metabolism. Interestingly, however, the exact composition and arrangement of the Pho regulon appears highly variable in marine cyanobacteria. The ISME Journal (2009) 3, 835-849; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2009.31; published online 2 April 2009

Collier, JL, Brahamsha B, Palenik B.  1999.  The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7805 requires urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC to utilize urea as a nitrogen source: molecular-genetic and biochemical analysis of the enzyme. Microbiology-Sgm. 145:447-459.   10.1099/13500872-145-2-447   AbstractWebsite

Cyanobacteria assigned to the genus Synechococcus are an important component of oligotrophic marine ecosystems, where their growth may be constrained by low availability of fixed nitrogen. Urea appears to be a major nitrogen resource in the sea, but little molecular information exists about its utilization by marine organisms, including Synechococcus. Oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify a conserved fragment of the urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC coding region from cyanobacteria. A 5.7 kbp region of the genome of the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH7805 was then cloned, and genes encoding three urease structural subunits and four urease accessory proteins were sequenced and identified by homology. The WH7805 urease had a predicted subunit composition typical of bacterial ureases, but the organization of the WH7805 urease genes was unique. Biochemical characteristics of the WH7805 urease enzyme were consistent with the predictions of the sequence data. Physiological data and sequence analysis both suggested that the urease operon may be nitrogen-regulated by the ntcA system in WH7805. Inactivation of the large subunit of urease, ureC, prevented WH7805 and Synechococcus WH8102 from growing on urea, demonstrating that the urease genes cloned are essential to the ability of these cyanobacteria to utilize urea as a nitrogen source.

Palenik, B, Swift H.  1996.  Cyanobacterial evolution and prochlorophyte diversity as seen in DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences. Journal of Phycology. 32:638-646.   Doi 10.1111/J.0022-3646.1996.00638.X   AbstractWebsite

Nucleotide sequence data from DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (rpoC) genes were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships among the phycobiliprotein- and three known chlorophyll b-containing (prochlorophyte) cyanobacteria. The phylogenetic trees obtained confirm the polyphyletic nature of the prochlorophytes. Data from Prochloron cells obtained form six different tunicate host species suggest that at least two closely related groups of Prochloron exist in the same area in Palau, West Caroline Islands. Overall, however, the genetic diversity within the analyzed samples was much smaller than within the nonsymbiotic Prochlorococcus.