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Worden, AZ, Nolan JK, Palenik B.  2004.  Assessing the dynamics and ecology of marine picophytoplankton: The importance of the eukaryotic component. Limnology and Oceanography. 49:168-179. AbstractWebsite
Wang, SY, Shi XG, Palenik B.  2016.  Characterization of Picochlorum sp use of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction as a nitrogen source. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 13:311-317.   10.1016/j.algal.2015.11.015   AbstractWebsite

Picochlorumsp. strain SENEW3 is a halotolerant green algawith high growth rates and the ability to utilize organic nitrogen sources including wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL-WW). Picochlorum acclimates to the presence of HTL-WW. In a photosynthesis/respiration rate test, Picochlorum SENEW3 showed a stress response to HTL-WW additions in a dose-dependent manner while cells pre-grown with HTL-WW had a greatly reduced response to additions. A quantitative proteomics tool, iTRAQ, was applied to assess Picochlorum global proteome changes in response to HTL-WWas a nitrogen source. From this approach, a total of 350 different proteins were identified across 2 biological replicates which were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated (average ratio of more than 1.2 or less than 0.8, at least one p-value of <0.05). Protease and oxidative stress enzymes were notably up-regulated. An aminopeptidase enzyme assay showed that, compared to controls, cells grown with 0.1% (vol) HTL-WW had 2.1-fold higher protease activity. An ascorbate peroxidase assay showed an 8.6-fold increase in exponential cells grown with 0.1% HTL-WW compared to controls. This study provides insights into the development of microalgae for algal biofuel production using HTL wastewater recycling [1]. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, SY, Lambert W, Giang S, Goericke R, Palenik B.  2014.  Microalgal assemblages in a poikilohaline pond. Journal of Phycology. 50:303-309.   10.1111/jpy.12158   AbstractWebsite

Microalgal strains for algal biofuels production in outdoor ponds will need to have high net growth rates under diverse environmental conditions. A small, variable salinity pond in the San Elijo Lagoon estuary in southern California was chosen to serve as a model pond due to its routinely high chlorophyll content. Profiles of microalgal assemblages from water samples collected from April 2011 to January 2012 were obtained by constructing 18S rDNA environmental clone libraries. Pond assemblages were found to be dominated by green algae Picochlorum sp. and Picocystis sp. throughout the year. Pigment analysis suggested that the two species contributed most of the chlorophyll a of the pond, which ranged from 21.9 to 664.3 mu g center dot L-1 with the Picocystis contribution increasing at higher salinities. However, changes of temperature, salinity or irradiance may have enabled a bloom of the diatom Chaetoceros sp. in June 2011. Isolates of these microalgae were obtained and their growth rates characterized as a function of temperature and salinity. Chaetoceros sp. had the highest growth rate over the temperature test range while it showed the most sensitivity to high salinity. All three strains showed the presence of lipid bodies during nitrogen starvation, suggesting they have potential as future biofuels strains.