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Dushaw, BD, Howe BM, Mercer JA, Spindel RC, Baggeroer AB, Menemenlis D, Wunsch C, Birdsall TG, Clark KMC, Colosi JA, Cornuelle BD, Dzieciuch M, Munk W.  1999.  Multimegameter-Range Acoustic Data Obtained by Bottom-Mounted Hydrophone Arrays for Measurement of Ocean Temperature. Ieee Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 24:202-214.   10.1109/48.757271   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic signals transmitted from the ATOC source on Pioneer Seamount off the coast of California have been received at various sites around the Pacific Basin since January 1996. We describe data obtained using bottom-mounted receivers, including U.S. Navy Sound Surveillance System arrays, at ranges up to 5 Mm from the Pioneer Seamount source. Stable identifiable ray arrivals are observed in several cases, but some receiving arrays are not well suited to detecting the direct ray arrivals. At 5-Mm range, travel-time variations at tidal frequencies (about 50 ms peak to peak) agree well with predicted values, providing verification of the acoustic measurements as well as the tidal model. On the longest and northernmost acoustic paths, the time series of resolved ray travel times show an annual cycle peak-to-peak variation of about 1 s and other fluctuations caused by natural oceanic variability. An annual cycle is not evident in travel times from shorter acoustic paths in the eastern Pacific, though only one realization of the annual cycle is available. The low-pass-filtered travel times are estimated to an accuracy of about 10 ms. This travel-time uncertainty corresponds to errors in range- and depth-averaged temperature of only a few millidegrees, while the annual peak-to-peak variation in temperature averaged horizontally over the acoustic path and vertically over the upper 1 km of ocean is up to 0.5 degree C.

The AMODE-MST Group, Birdsall TG, Boyd J, Cornuelle BD, Howe BM, Knox R, Mercer JA, Metzger Jr. K, Spindel RC, Worcester PF.  1994.  Moving ship tomography in the North Atlantic. EOS Trans. AGU. 75:17,21,23. Abstract
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Di Lorenzo, E, Miller AJ, Neilson DJ, Cornuelle BD, Moisan JR.  2004.  Modelling observed California Current mesoscale eddies and the ecosystem response. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 25:1307-1312.   10.1080/01431160310001592229   AbstractWebsite

Satellite and in situ observations are used to test model dynamics for the California Current System (CCS). The model and data are combined to reconstruct the mesoscale ocean structure during a given three-week period. The resulting physical flow field is used to drive a 3D ecosystem model to interpret SeaWiFS and in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) variations. With this approach a more complete and consistent picture of the physical and ecosystem processes of the CCS is obtained, providing the basis for addressing fundamental questions about dynamics and predictability of the coastal ocean.

Miller, AJ, Di Lorenzo E, Neilson DJ, Cornuelle BD, Moisan JR.  2000.  Modeling CalCOFI observations during El Nino: Fitting physics and biology. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 41:87-97. AbstractWebsite

Surveys of temperature, salinity, and velocity from CalCOFI, altimetric measurements of sea level, and drifter observations of temperature and velocity during the 1997-98 El Nino are now being fit with an eddy-resolving ocean model of the Southern California Eight region to obtain dynamically consistent estimates of eddy variability. Skill is evaluated by the model-data mismatch (rms error) during the fitting interval and eventually by forecasting independent data. Preliminary results of fitting July 1997 physical fields are discussed. The physical fields are used to drive a three-dimensional NPZD-type model to be fit to subsurface chlorophyll a (chl a), nitrate, and bulk zooplankton from CalCOFI surveys, and surface chi a from SeaWiFS. Preliminary results of testing the ecosystem model in one-dimensional and three-dimensional form are discussed.

Hoteit, I, Hoar T, Gopalakrishnan G, Collins N, Anderson J, Cornuelle B, Kohl A, Heimbach P.  2013.  A MITgcm/DART ensemble analysis and prediction system with application to the Gulf of Mexico. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 63:1-23.   10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2013.03.002   AbstractWebsite

This paper describes the development of an advanced ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-based ocean data assimilation system for prediction of the evolution of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The system integrates the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) assimilation package with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (MITgcm). The MITgcm/DART system supports the assimilation of a wide range of ocean observations and uses an ensemble approach to solve the nonlinear assimilation problems. The GoM prediction system was implemented with an eddy-resolving 1/10th degree configuration of the MITgcm. Assimilation experiments were performed over a 6-month period between May and October during a strong loop current event in 1999. The model was sequentially constrained with weekly satellite sea surface temperature and altimetry data. Experiments results suggest that the ensemble-based assimilation system shows a high predictive skill in the GoM, with estimated ensemble spread mainly concentrated around the front of the loop current. Further analysis of the system estimates demonstrates that the ensemble assimilation accurately reproduces the observed features without imposing any negative impact on the dynamical balance of the system. Results from sensitivity experiments with respect to the ensemble filter parameters are also presented and discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schonau, MC, Rudnick DL, Cerovecki I, Gopalakrishnan G, Cornuelle BD, McClean JL, Qiu B.  2015.  The Mindanao Current mean structure and connectivity. Oceanography. 28:34-45.   10.5670/oceanog.2015.79   AbstractWebsite

The Mindanao Current (MC), a low-latitude western boundary current in the Pacific Ocean, plays an important role in heat and freshwater transport to the western Pacific warm pool and the Indian Ocean. However, there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the structure and variability of the MC and its connectivity to regional circulation. The Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current (OKMC) initiative combines four years of glider observations of the MC, a historical conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/float climatology, and results from a global strongly eddying forward ocean general circulation model simulation and a regional ocean state estimate. The MC is resolved as a strong southward current primarily within the upper 200 m, approaching 1 m s(-1), and extending roughly 300 km offshore of Mindanao. Observations and model simulations show a persistent northward Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC) below the thermocline. The MC transports water masses of North Pacific origin southward, while the MUC carries water with South Pacific characteristics northward. The subthermocline transport of the MC and the MUC is connected to other undercurrents in the Philippine Sea. The variability of this transport is a topic of continuing research.

Duda, TF, Flatte SM, Colosi JA, Cornuelle BD, Hildebrand JA, Hodgkiss WS, Worcester PF, Howe BM, Mercer JA, Spindel RC.  1992.  Measured Wave-Front Fluctuations in 1000-Km Pulse-Propagation in the Pacific-Ocean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 92:939-955.   10.1121/1.403964   AbstractWebsite

A 1000-km acoustical transmission experiment has been carried out in the North Pacific, with Pulses broadcast between a moored broadband source (250-Hz center frequency) and a moored sparse vertical line of receivers. Two data records are reported: a period of 9 days at a pulse rate of one per hour, and a 21 -h period on the seventh day at six per hour. Many wave-front segments were observed at each hydrophone depth, and arrival times were tracked and studied as functions of time and depth. Arrivals within the final section of the pulse are not trackable in time or space at the chosen sampling rates, however. Broadband fluctuations, which are uncorrelated over 10-min sampling and 60-m vertical spacing, are observed with about 40 (ms)2 variance. The variance of all other fluctuations (denoted as low-frequency) is comparable or smaller than the broadband value; this low-frequency variance can be separated into two parts: a wave-front segment displacement (with vertical correlation length greater than 1 km) that varies substantially between rays with different ray identifiers, and a distortion (with vertical correlation length between 60 m and 1 km) of about 2 (ms)2 variance. The low-frequency variance may be explained as the effect of internal waves, including internal tides. The variance of the broadband fluctuations is reduced somewhat but not eliminated if only high-intensity peaks are selected; this selection does not affect the statistics of the low-frequency fluctuations.

Roemmich, D, Gilson J, Cornuelle B, Weller R.  2001.  Mean and time-varying meridional transport of heat at the tropical subtropical boundary of the North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 106:8957-8970.   10.1029/1999jc000150   AbstractWebsite

Ocean heat transport near the tropical/subtropical boundary of the North Pacific during 1993-1999 is described, including its mean and time variability. Twenty-eight trans-Pacific high-resolution expendable bathythermograph (XBT)/expendable conductivity-temperature-depth (XCTD) transects are used together with directly measured and operational wind estimates to calculate the geostrophic and Ekman transports. The mean heat transport across the XBT transect was 0.83 +/- 0.12 pW during the 7 year period. The large number of transects enables a stable estimate of the mean field to be made, with error bars based on the known variability. The North Pacific heat engine is a shallow meridional overturning circulation that includes warm Ekman and western boundary current components flowing northward, balanced by a southward flow of cool thermocline waters (including Subtropical Mode Waters). A near-balance of geostrophic and Ekman transports holds in an interannual sense as well as for the time mean. Interannual variability in geostrophic transport is strikingly similar to the pattern of central North Pacific sea level pressure variability (the North Pacific Index). The interannual range in heat transport was more than 0.4 pW during 1993-1999, with maximum northward values about 1 pW in early 1994 and early 1997. The ocean heat transport time series is similar to that of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts air-sea heat flux integrated over the Pacific north of the XBT line. The repeating nature of the XBT/XCTD transects, with direct wind measurements, allows a substantial improvement over previous heat transport estimates based on one-time transects. A global system is envisioned for observing the time-varying ocean heat transport and its role in the Earth's heat budget and climate system.

Cornuelle, BD, Malanotterizzoli P.  1986.  A Maximum-Gradient Inverse for the Gulf-Stream System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 91:566-580.   10.1029/JC091iC09p10566   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic tomography uses integrating measurements which require inverse methods to resolve the averages into estimates of spatial structure. Statistical inverse methods have been extensively used to solve the reconstruction problem over different tomographic ranges and configurations. These inverses become very difficult to apply in frontal regions like the Gulf Stream (GS) system, where the statistics are acutely inhomogeneous and anisotropic and the mean is not a likely representation of the GS front at any time. In this paper we propose an alternative inverse which asks for the solution which gives a front instead of asking for the smoothest solution. The inverse solution minimizes the errors in the fit to the data while simultaneously maximizing the sum of the squares of the gradients observed in the reconstructed section and minimizing the absolute value norm for stability. The inverse is aimed at detecting changes in the GS front, thus the data are used to estimate the perturbations to a previous estimate of the frontal structure, instead of reconstructing the entire front as a perturbation from some average state. This approach is intended to merge well with eventual dynamic updating schemes and can be used with various types of data, given a proper model. Several examples have been run intercomparing the traditional linear least squares (LLSI) with the maximum gradient inverse (MGI), from very idealized cases to a real Gulf Stream section reconstructed from hydrographic data. Different transceiver configurations were also compared and mid-depth instruments were found to be superior to bottom mounted instruments. The simplest cases show a significant improvement in the estimate of the Gulf Stream front by the MGI compared to the weighted least squares inverse (LLSI). As the cases became more complicated (and more realistic), the differences between inverse methods become less pronounced, although the strength and location of the perturbation maxima were always determined more accurately by the MGI. The decline is at least partially due to the numerical algorithm which lumps data misfits and external constraints (the maximum gradient) into a single penalty criterion which is minimized. The most immediate way to overcome this limitation is to break up the problem into a two-step procedure, first a least squares inverse to fit the data and second an iterative, nonlinear optimization maximizing the gradient and minimizing the absolute value norm.

Kim, SY, Terrill EJ, Cornuelle BD, Jones B, Washburn L, Moline MA, Paduan JD, Garfield N, Largier JL, Crawford G, Kosro PM.  2011.  Mapping the U.S. West Coast surface circulation: A multiyear analysis of high-frequency radar observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 116   10.1029/2010jc006669   AbstractWebsite

The nearly completed U. S. West Coast (USWC) high-frequency radar (HFR) network provides an unprecedented capability to monitor and understand coastal ocean dynamics and phenomenology through hourly surface current measurements at up to 1 km resolution. The dynamics of the surface currents off the USWC are governed by tides, winds, Coriolis force, low-frequency pressure gradients (less than 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)), and nonlinear interactions of those forces. Alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100 to 300) km day(-1) and time scales of 2 to 3 weeks. The signals with slow phase speed are only observed in southern California. It is hypothesized that they are scattered and reflected by shoreline curvature and bathymetry change and do not penetrate north of Point Conception. The seasonal transition of alongshore surface circulation forced by upwelling-favorable winds and their relaxation is captured in fine detail. Submesoscale eddies, identified using flow geometry, have Rossby numbers of 0.1 to 3, diameters in the range of 10 to 60 km, and persistence for 2 to 12 days. The HFR surface currents resolve coastal surface ocean variability continuously across scales from submesoscale to mesoscale (O(1) km to O(1000) km). Their spectra decay with k(-2) at high wave number (less than 100 km) in agreement with theoretical submesoscale spectra below the observational limits of present-day satellite altimeters.

Kim, SY, Terrill EJ, Cornuelle BD.  2008.  Mapping surface currents from HF radar radial velocity measurements using optimal interpolation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 113   10.1029/2007jc004244   AbstractWebsite

An optimal interpolation (OI) method to compute surface vector current fields from radial velocity measurements derived from high-frequency (HF) radars is presented. The method assumes a smooth spatial covariance relationship between neighboring vector currents, in contrast to the more commonly used un-weighted least-squares fitting (UWLS) method, which assumes a constant vector velocity within a defined search radius. This OI method can directly compute any quantities linearly related to the radial velocities, such as vector currents and dynamic quantities (divergence and vorticity) as well as the uncertainties of those respective fields. The OI method is found to be more stable than the UWLS method and reduces spurious vector solutions near the baselines between HF radar installations. The OI method produces a covariance of the uncertainty of the estimated vector current fields. Three nondimensional uncertainty indices are introduced to characterize the uncertainty of the vector current at a point, representing an ellipse with directional characteristics. The vector current estimation using the OI method eliminates the need for multiple mapping steps and optimally fills intermittent coverage gaps. The effects of angular interpolation of radial velocities, a commonly used step in the preprocessing of radial velocity data prior to vector current computation in the UWLS method, are presented.

Orsi, AJ, Cornuelle BD, Severinghaus JP.  2014.  Magnitude and temporal evolution of Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 abrupt temperature change inferred from nitrogen and argon isotopes in GISP2 ice using a new least-squares inversion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 395:81-90.   10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.030   AbstractWebsite

Polar temperature is often inferred from water isotopes in ice cores. However, non-temperature effects on 3180 are important during the abrupt events of the last glacial period, such as changes in the seasonality of precipitation, the northward movement of the storm track, and the increase in accumulation. These effects complicate the interpretation of 8180 as a temperature proxy. Here, we present an independent surface temperature reconstruction, which allows us to test the relationship between delta O-18(ice) and temperature, during Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8, 38.2 thousand yrs ago using new delta N-15 and delta Ar-40 data from the GISP2 ice core in Greenland. This temperature reconstruction relies on a new inversion of inert gas isotope data using generalized least-squares, and includes a robust uncertainty estimation. We find that both temperature and delta O-18 increased in two steps of 20 and 140 yrs, with an overall amplitude of 11.80 +/- 1.8 degrees C between the stadial and interstadial centennial-mean temperature. The coefficient alpha = d delta O-18/dT changes with each time-segment, which shows that non-temperature sources of fractionation have a significant contribution to the delta O-18 signal. When measured on century-averaged values, we find that alpha = d delta O-18/dT = 0.32 +/- 0.06%(0)/degrees C, which is similar to the glacial/Holocene value of 0.328%(o)/degrees C. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.