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Sarkar, J, Marandet C, Roux P, Walker S, Cornuelle BD, Kuperman WA.  2012.  Sensitivity kernel for surface scattering in a waveguide. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131:111-118.   10.1121/1.3665999   AbstractWebsite

Using the Born approximation, a linearized sensitivity kernel is derived to describe the relationship between a local change at the free surface and its effect on the acoustic propagation in the water column. The structure of the surface scattering kernel is investigated numerically and experimentally for the case of a waveguide at the ultrasonic scale. To better demonstrate the sensitivity of the multipath propagation to the introduction of a localized perturbation at the air-water interface, the kernel is formulated both in terms of point-to-point and beam-to-beam representations. Agreement between theory and experiment suggests applications to sensitivity analysis of the wavefield for sea surface perturbations. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3665999]

Roux, P, Cornuelle BD, Kuperman WA, Hodgkiss WS.  2008.  The structure of raylike arrivals in a shallow-water waveguide. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 124:3430-3439.   10.1121/1.2996330   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic remote sensing of the oceans requires a detailed understanding of the acoustic forward problem. The results of a shallow-water transmission experiment between a vertical array of sources and a vertical array of receivers are reported. The source array is used to provide additional degrees of freedom to isolate and track raylike arrivals by beamforming over both source and receiver arrays. The coordinated source-receiver array processing procedure is presented and its effectiveness in an example of tracking raylike arrivals in a fluctuating ocean environment is shown. Many of these arrivals can be tracked over an hour or more and show slowly varying amplitude and phase. The use of a double-beamforming algorithm lays the foundation for shallow-water acoustic remote sensing using travel time and source and receive angles of selected eigenrays. (C) 2008 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.2996330]

Vera, MD, Heaney KD, Grp N.  2005.  The effect of bottom interaction on transmissions from the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory Kauai source. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 117:1624-1634.   10.1121/1.1854491   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic signals transmitted from a 75-Hz broadband source near Kauai as part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL), experiment were recorded on an array of receivers near California at a range of 3890 km, and on a vertical line array at a range of 3336 km in the Gulf of Alaska. Because the source is approximately 2 m above the seafloor, and the bottom depth at the receivers near California is approximately 1800 m, acoustic interaction with the bathymetry complicates the identification of the recorded arrivals with those present in numerical simulations of the experiment. Ray methods were used to categorize acoustic energy according to interactions with the sea bottom and surface and to examine the significance of seafloor geometry. A modal decomposition was also used to examine the role of range-dependent bathymetry and to associate the effects on the acoustic field with seafloor features at specific ranges. Parabolic-equation simulations were performed in order to investigate the sensitivity of the received signal to geoacoustic parameters; shear excitations within the seafloor were modeled using a complex-density, equivalent-fluid technique. Incorporation of bottom interaction into models of the propagation enables an identification between experimental and simulated arrivals. (c) 2005 Acoustical Society of America.

Morawitz, WML, Sutton PJ, Worcester PF, Cornuelle BD, Lynch JF, Pawlowicz R.  1996.  Three-dimensional observations of a deep convective chimney in the Greenland sea during Winter 1988/89. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 26:2316-2343.   10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<2316:tdooad>;2   AbstractWebsite

All available temperature data, including moored thermistor. hydrographic, and tomographic measurements, have been combined using least-squares inverse methods to study the evolution of the three-dimensional temperature field in the Greenland Sea during winter 1988/89. The data are adequate to resolve features with spatial scares of about 40 km and larger. A chimney structure reaching depths in excess of 1000 m is observed to the southwest of the gyre center during March 1989. The chimney has a spatial scale of about 50 km, near the limit of the spatial resolution of the data, and a timescale of about 10 days, The chimney structure breaks up and disappears in only 3-6 days. A one-dimensional vertical heat balance adequately describes changes in total heat content in the chimney region from autumn 1988 until the time of chimney breakup, when horizontal advection becomes important. A simple one-dimensional mixed layer model is surprisingly successful in reproducing autumn to winter bulk temperature and salinity changes, as well as the observed evolution of the mixed layer to depths in excess of 1000 m. Uncertainties in surface freshwater fluxes make it difficult to determine whether net evaporation minus precipitation, or ice advection, is responsible for the observed depth-averaged salinity increase from autumn to winter in the chimney region. Rough estimates of the potential energy balance In the mixed laver suggest that potential energy changes are reasonably consistent with turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production terms. Initially the TKE term parameterizing wind forcing and shear production is important, but as the mixed layer deepens the surface buoyancy production term dominates. The estimated average annual deep-water production rate in the Greenland Sea for 1988/89 is about 0.1 Sverdrups, comparable to production rates during the 1980s and early 1990s derived from tracer measurements. The location of the deep convection observed appears to be sensitively linked to the amount of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) present from autumn through spring. Although AIW is an important source of salt for the surface waters, too much AIW overstratifies the water column, preventing deep convection from occurring.