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D
Dushaw, BD, Worcester PF, Cornuelle BD, Howe BM.  1994.  Barotropic Currents and Vorticity in the Central North Pacific-Ocean During Summer 1987 Determined from Long-Range Reciprocal Acoustic Transmissions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 99:3263-3272.   10.1029/93jc03335   AbstractWebsite

Large-scale depth-integrated currents and relative vorticity were measured in the central North Pacific Ocean during summer 1987 using long-range reciprocal acoustic transmissions between transceivers in a triangle approximately 1000 km on a side. Inverse techniques were used to estimate the depth-averaged (barotropic) current bihourly at 4-day intervals from differential travel times. Tidal constituent amplitudes and phases found from the acoustically determined currents agree with those found from current meters and with the tidal models of Schwiderski (1980) and Cartwright et al. (1992), providing confirmation that the tomographically derived barotropic currents are correct within the expected uncertainties. The estimated low-frequency, large-scale currents are compared with depth-averaged currents determined by point measurements using current meters and bottom-mounted electrometers. Meridional and zonal currents are calculated using the topographic Sverdrup balance with the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center wind field. The measured time derivative of the areally averaged relative vorticity is shown to be insignificant to the Sverdrup balance. Currents and vorticity calculated using the Sverdrup balance are an order of magnitude smaller than the observations. The magnitude and variability of the large-scale currents and vorticity determined from the Semtner and Chervin (1988) eddy-resolving model of ocean circulation are similar to the direct measurements.

F
Fontan, A, Cornuelle B.  2015.  Anisotropic response of surface circulation to wind forcing, as inferred from high-frequency radar currents in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 120:2945-2957.   10.1002/2014jc010671   AbstractWebsite

The short-term (less than 20 days) response of surface circulation to wind has been determined in waters of the southeastern Bay of Biscay, using wind impulse response (time domain) and transfer (frequency domain) functions relating high-frequency radar currents and reanalysis winds. The response of surface currents is amplified at the near-inertial frequency and the low-frequency and it varies spatially. The analysis indicates that the response of the ocean to the wind is slightly anisotropic, likely due to pressure gradients and friction induced by the bottom and coastline boundaries in this region. Thus, the transfer function at the near-inertial frequency decreases onshore due to the coastline inhibition of circularly polarized near-inertial motion. In contrast, the low-frequency transfer function is enhanced toward the coast as a result of the geostrophic balance between the cross-shore pressure gradient and the Coriolis forces. The transfer functions also vary with season. In summer, the current response to wind is expected to be stronger but shallower due to stratification; in winter, the larger mixed layer depth results in a weaker but deeper response. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical description of wind-driven circulation and can be used to develop a statistical model with a broad range of applications including accurate oceanic forecasting and understanding of the coupled atmosphere-ocean influence on marine ecosystems.

G
Gawarkiewicz, G, Jan S, Lermusiaux PFJ, McClean JL, Centurioni L, Taylor K, Cornuelle B, Duda TF, Wang J, Yang YJ, Sanford T, Lien RC, Lee C, Lee MA, Leslie W, Haley PJ, Niiler PP, Gopalakrishnan G, Velez-Belchi P, Lee DK, Kim YY.  2011.  Circulation and Intrusions Northeast of Taiwan: Chasing and Predicting Uncertainty in the Cold Dome. Oceanography. 24:110-121. AbstractWebsite

An important element of present oceanographic research is the assessment and quantification of uncertainty. These studies are challenging in the coastal ocean due to the wide variety of physical processes occurring on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. In order to assess new methods for quantifying and predicting uncertainty, a joint Taiwan-US field program was undertaken in August/September 2009 to compare model forecasts of uncertainties in ocean circulation and acoustic propagation, with high-resolution in situ observations. The geographical setting was the continental shelf and slope northeast of Taiwan, where a feature called the "cold dome" frequently forms. Even though it is hypothesized that Kuroshio subsurface intrusions are the water sources for the cold dome, the dome's dynamics are highly uncertain, involving multiple scales and many interacting ocean features. During the experiment, a combination of near-surface and profiling drifters, broad-scale and high-resolution hydrography, mooring arrays, remote sensing, and regional ocean model forecasts of fields and uncertainties were used to assess mean fields and uncertainties in the region. River runoff from Typhoon Morakot, which hit Taiwan August 7-8, 2009, strongly affected shelf stratification. In addition to the river runoff, a cold cyclonic eddy advected into the region north of the Kuroshio, resulting in a cold dome formation event. Uncertainty forecasts were successfully employed to guide the hydrographic sampling plans. Measurements and forecasts also shed light on the evolution of cold dome waters, including the frequency of eddy shedding to the north-northeast, and interactions with the Kuroshio and tides. For the first time in such a complex region, comparisons between uncertainty forecasts and the model skill at measurement locations validated uncertainty forecasts. To complement the real-time model simulations, historical simulations with another model show that large Kuroshio intrusions were associated with low sea surface height anomalies east of Taiwan, suggesting that there may be some degree of predictability for Kuroshio intrusions.

H
Haidvogel, DB, Arango H, Budgell WP, Cornuelle BD, Curchitser E, Di Lorenzo E, Fennel K, Geyer WR, Hermann AJ, Lanerolle L, Levin J, McWilliams JC, Miller AJ, Moore AM, Powell TM, Shchepetkin AF, Sherwood CR, Signell RP, Warner JC, Wilkin J.  2008.  Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Journal of Computational Physics. 227:3595-3624.   10.1016/j.jcp.2007.06.016   AbstractWebsite

Systematic improvements in algorithmic design of regional ocean circulation models have led to significant enhancement in simulation ability across a wide range of space/time scales and marine system types. As an example, we briefly review the Regional Ocean Modeling System, a member of a general class of three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical models. Noteworthy characteristics of the ROMS computational kernel include: consistent temporal averaging of the barotropic mode to guarantee both exact conservation and constancy preservation properties for tracers; redefined barotropic pressure-gradient terms to account for local variations in the density field; vertical interpolation performed using conservative parabolic splines; and higher-order, quasi-monotone advection algorithms. Examples of quantitative skill assessment are shown for a tidally driven estuary, an ice-covered high-latitude sea, a wind- and buoyancy-forced continental shelf, and a mid-latitude ocean basin. The combination of moderate-order spatial approximations, enhanced conservation properties, and quasi-monotone advection produces both more robust and accurate, and less diffusive, solutions than those produced in earlier terrain-following ocean models. Together with advanced methods of data assimilation and novel observing system technologies, these capabilities constitute the necessary ingredients for multi-purpose regional ocean prediction systems. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

K
Kim, SY, Cornuelle BD, Terrill EJ.  2010.  Decomposing observations of high-frequency radar-derived surface currents by their forcing mechanisms: Decomposition techniques and spatial structures of decomposed surface currents. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 115   10.1029/2010jc006222   AbstractWebsite

Surface current observations from a high-frequency radar network deployed in southern San Diego are decomposed according to their driving forces: pure tides and their neighboring off-band energy, local winds, and low frequency. Several superposed ocean responses are present as a result of the complicated bottom topography and relatively weak winds off southern San Diego, as opposed to coastal regions where circulation can be explained by a dominant forcing mechanism. This necessitates an application of a statistical decomposition approach. Surface currents coherent with pure tides are calculated using harmonic analysis. Locally wind-driven surface currents are estimated by regression of observed winds on observed surface currents. The dewinded and detided surface currents are filtered by weighted least-squares fitting assuming white noise and three colored signal bands: low-frequency band (less than 0.4 cycles per day) and near-tidal peaks at the diurnal (K-1) and semidiurnal (M-2) frequencies. The spatial and temporal variability of each part of the decomposed surface currents is investigated in terms of ocean response to the driving forces. In addition, the spatial correlations of individual components exhibit Gaussian and exponential shapes with varying decorrelation length scales.

M
Mazloff, MR, Gille ST, Cornuelle B.  2014.  Improving the geoid: Combining altimetry and mean dynamic topography in the California coastal ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 41:8944-8952.   10.1002/2014gl062402   AbstractWebsite

Satellite gravity mapping missions, altimeters, and other platforms have allowed the Earth's geoid to be mapped over the ocean to a horizontal resolution of approximately 100km with an uncertainty of less than 10cm. At finer resolution this uncertainty increases to greater than 10cm. Achieving greater accuracy requires accurate estimates of the dynamic ocean topography (DOT). In this study two DOT estimates for the California Current System with uncertainties less than 10cm are used to solve for a geoid correction field. The derived field increases the consistency between the DOTs and along-track altimetric observations, suggesting it is a useful correction to the gravitational field. The correction is large compared to the dynamic ocean topography, with a magnitude of 15cm and significant structure, especially near the coast. The results are evidence that modern high-resolution dynamic ocean topography products can be used to improve estimates of the geoid.

Mazloff, MR, Cornuelle BD, Gille ST, Verdy A.  2018.  Correlation lengths for estimating the large-scale carbon and heat content of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:883-901.   10.1002/2017jc013408   AbstractWebsite

The spatial correlation scales of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon, heat content, and carbon and heat exchanges with the atmosphere are estimated from a realistic numerical simulation of the Southern Ocean. Biases in the model are assessed by comparing the simulated sea surface height and temperature scales to those derived from optimally interpolated satellite measurements. While these products do not resolve all ocean scales, they are representative of the climate scale variability we aim to estimate. Results show that constraining the carbon and heat inventory between 35 degrees S and 70 degrees S on time-scales longer than 90 days requires approximately 100 optimally spaced measurement platforms: approximately one platform every 20 degrees longitude by 6 degrees latitude. Carbon flux has slightly longer zonal scales, and requires a coverage of approximately 30 degrees by 6 degrees. Heat flux has much longer scales, and thus a platform distribution of approximately 90 degrees by 10 degrees would be sufficient. Fluxes, however, have significant subseasonal variability. For all fields, and especially fluxes, sustained measurements in time are required to prevent aliasing of the eddy signals into the longer climate scale signals. Our results imply a minimum of 100 biogeochemical-Argo floats are required to monitor the Southern Ocean carbon and heat content and air-sea exchanges on time-scales longer than 90 days. However, an estimate of formal mapping error using the current Argo array implies that in practice even an array of 600 floats (a nominal float density of about 1 every 7 degrees longitude by 3 degrees latitude) will result in nonnegligible uncertainty in estimating climate signals.

Miller, AJ, Cornuelle BD.  1999.  Forecasts from fits of frontal fluctuations. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 29:305-333.   10.1016/s0377-0265(99)00009-3   AbstractWebsite

A primitive equation ocean model is fit with strong constraints to non-synoptic hydrographic surveys in an unstable frontal current region, the Iceland-Faeroe Front. The model is first initialized from a time-independent objective analysis of non-synoptic data (spanning 2 to 6 days). A truncated set of eddy-scale basis functions is used to represent the initial error in temperature, salinity, and velocity. A series of model integrations, each perturbed with one basis function for one dependent variable in one layer, is used to determine the sensitivity to the objective-analysis initial state of the match to the non-synoptic hydrographic data. A new initial condition is then determined from a generalized inverse of the sensitivity matrix and the process is repeated to account for non-linearity. The method is first tested in 'identical twin' experiments to demonstrate the adequacy of the basis functions in representing initial condition error and the convergence of the method to the true solution. The approach is then applied to observations gathered in August 1993 in the Iceland-Faeroe Front. Model fits are successful in improving the match to the true data, leading to dynamically consistent evolution scenarios. However, the forecast skill (here defined as the variance of the model-data differences) of the model runs from the optimized initial condition is not superior to less sophisticated methods of initialization, probably due to inadequate initialization data. The limited verification data in the presence of strong frontal slopes may not be sufficient to establish Forecast skill, so that it must be judged subjectively or evaluated by other quantitative measures. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Morawitz, WML, Sutton PJ, Worcester PF, Cornuelle BD, Lynch JF, Pawlowicz R.  1996.  Three-dimensional observations of a deep convective chimney in the Greenland sea during Winter 1988/89. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 26:2316-2343.   10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<2316:tdooad>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

All available temperature data, including moored thermistor. hydrographic, and tomographic measurements, have been combined using least-squares inverse methods to study the evolution of the three-dimensional temperature field in the Greenland Sea during winter 1988/89. The data are adequate to resolve features with spatial scares of about 40 km and larger. A chimney structure reaching depths in excess of 1000 m is observed to the southwest of the gyre center during March 1989. The chimney has a spatial scale of about 50 km, near the limit of the spatial resolution of the data, and a timescale of about 10 days, The chimney structure breaks up and disappears in only 3-6 days. A one-dimensional vertical heat balance adequately describes changes in total heat content in the chimney region from autumn 1988 until the time of chimney breakup, when horizontal advection becomes important. A simple one-dimensional mixed layer model is surprisingly successful in reproducing autumn to winter bulk temperature and salinity changes, as well as the observed evolution of the mixed layer to depths in excess of 1000 m. Uncertainties in surface freshwater fluxes make it difficult to determine whether net evaporation minus precipitation, or ice advection, is responsible for the observed depth-averaged salinity increase from autumn to winter in the chimney region. Rough estimates of the potential energy balance In the mixed laver suggest that potential energy changes are reasonably consistent with turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production terms. Initially the TKE term parameterizing wind forcing and shear production is important, but as the mixed layer deepens the surface buoyancy production term dominates. The estimated average annual deep-water production rate in the Greenland Sea for 1988/89 is about 0.1 Sverdrups, comparable to production rates during the 1980s and early 1990s derived from tracer measurements. The location of the deep convection observed appears to be sensitively linked to the amount of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) present from autumn through spring. Although AIW is an important source of salt for the surface waters, too much AIW overstratifies the water column, preventing deep convection from occurring.

S
Schonau, MC, Rudnick DL, Cerovecki I, Gopalakrishnan G, Cornuelle BD, McClean JL, Qiu B.  2015.  The Mindanao Current mean structure and connectivity. Oceanography. 28:34-45.   10.5670/oceanog.2015.79   AbstractWebsite

The Mindanao Current (MC), a low-latitude western boundary current in the Pacific Ocean, plays an important role in heat and freshwater transport to the western Pacific warm pool and the Indian Ocean. However, there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the structure and variability of the MC and its connectivity to regional circulation. The Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current (OKMC) initiative combines four years of glider observations of the MC, a historical conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/float climatology, and results from a global strongly eddying forward ocean general circulation model simulation and a regional ocean state estimate. The MC is resolved as a strong southward current primarily within the upper 200 m, approaching 1 m s(-1), and extending roughly 300 km offshore of Mindanao. Observations and model simulations show a persistent northward Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC) below the thermocline. The MC transports water masses of North Pacific origin southward, while the MUC carries water with South Pacific characteristics northward. The subthermocline transport of the MC and the MUC is connected to other undercurrents in the Philippine Sea. The variability of this transport is a topic of continuing research.

Send, U, Worcester PF, Cornuelle BD, Tiemann CO, Baschek B.  2002.  Integral measurements of mass transport and heat content in the Strait of Gibraltar from acoustic transmissions. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 49:4069-4095.   10.1016/s0967-0645(02)00143-1   AbstractWebsite

Three 2 kHz acoustic transceivers were deployed on either side of the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar during April-May 1996 to determine the feasibility of using acoustic methods to make routine, rapidly repeated, horizontally integrated measurements of flow and temperature in straits. Reciprocal transmissions between the transceivers were used to test the feasibility of using traditional ray differential travel times to monitor the component of flow along the acoustic paths. Transmissions directly across the Strait were used to test the feasibility of using horizontal arrival angle fluctuations and acoustic intensity scintillations to monitor the flow perpendicular to the acoustic path. The geometry was selected to provide ray paths that only sample the lower-layer Mediterranean water, so that the feasibility of monitoring the Mediterranean outflow using the various methods could be evaluated. The acoustic scintillation method did not yield useful current estimates, but the experimental parameters were not optimized for this approach. Since the low-frequency variability in log-amplitude was found to be highly correlated at receivers 228 m apart, it is possible that acoustic scintillation measurements using different receiver spacings and more rapid sampling might yield better results. The horizontal deflection method gave encouraging results at the time of neap tides, but less so during spring tides. For this approach, both theoretical estimates and measured phase differences between the horizontally separated receivers suggest that internal-wave-induced horizontal arrival angle fluctuations may fundamentally limit the precision with which arrival angles can be measured. Further work is needed to determine if a smaller horizontal spacing and higher signal-to-noise ratios would yield better results. Reciprocal travel time measurements diagonally across the Strait performed the best of the three methods, giving absolute flow estimates consistent with those derived from current-meter data. The fractional uncertainty variance for the lower layer tidal transport from a single tomographic path was estimated to be 0.017 (i.e. 98% of the a priori tidal transport variance was resolved). The spatial scales of the sub-tidal flow are thought to be significantly shorter than those of the tidal flow, however, which means that a more elaborate monitoring network is required to achieve the same performance for sub-tidal variability. Finally, sum travel times from the reciprocal transmissions were found to provide good measurements of the temperature and heat content in the lower layer. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Subramanian, AC, Miller AJ, Cornuelle BD, Di Lorenzo E, Weller RA, Straneo F.  2013.  A data assimilative perspective of oceanic mesoscale eddy evolution during VOCALS-REx. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 13:3329-3344.   10.5194/acp-13-3329-2013   AbstractWebsite

Oceanic observations collected during the VOCALS-REx cruise time period, 1-30 November 2008, are assimilated into a regional ocean model (ROMS) using 4DVAR and then analyzed for their dynamics. Nonlinearities in the system prevent a complete 30-day fit, so two 15-day fits for 1-15 November and 16-30 November are executed using the available observations of hydrographic temperature and salinity, along with satellite fields of SST and sea-level height anomaly. The fits converge and reduce the cost function significantly, and the results indicated that ROMS is able to successfully reproduce both large-scale and smaller-scale features of the flows observed during the VOCALS-REx cruise. Particular attention is focused on an intensively studied eddy at 76 degrees W, 19 degrees S. The ROMS fits capture this eddy as an isolated rotating 3-D vortex with a strong subsurface signature in velocity, temperature and anomalously low salinity. The eddy has an average temperature anomaly of approximately -0.5 degrees C over a depth range from 50-600 m and features a cold anomaly of approximately -1 degrees C near 150 m depth. The eddy moves northwestward and elongates during the second 15-day fit. It exhibits a strong signature in the Okubo-Weiss parameter, which indicates significant non-linearity in its evolution. The heat balance for the period of the cruise from the ocean state estimate reveals that the horizontal advection and the vertical mixing processes are the dominant terms that balance the temperature tendency of the upper layer of the ocean locally in time and space. Areal averages around the eddies, for a 15-day period during the cruise, suggest that vertical mixing processes generally balance the surface heating. Although, this indicates only a small role for lateral advective processes in this region during this period, this quasi-instantaneous heat budget analysis cannot be extended to interpret the seasonal or long-term upper ocean heat budget in this region.

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Todd, RE, Rudnick DL, Mazloff MR, Cornuelle BD, Davis RE.  2012.  Thermohaline structure in the California Current System: Observations and modeling of spice variance. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 117   10.1029/2011jc007589   AbstractWebsite

Upper ocean thermohaline structure in the California Current System is investigated using sustained observations from autonomous underwater gliders and a numerical state estimate. Both observations and the state estimate show layers distinguished by the temperature and salinity variability along isopycnals (i.e., spice variance). Mesoscale and submesoscale spice variance is largest in the remnant mixed layer, decreases to a minimum below the pycnocline near 26.3 kg m(-3), and then increases again near 26.6 kg m(-3). Layers of high (low) meso-and submesoscale spice variance are found on isopycnals where large-scale spice gradients are large (small), consistent with stirring of large-scale gradients to produce smaller scale thermohaline structure. Passive tracer adjoint calculations in the state estimate are used to investigate possible mechanisms for the formation of the layers of spice variance. Layers of high spice variance are found to have distinct origins and to be associated with named water masses; high spice variance water in the remnant mixed layer has northerly origin and is identified as Pacific Subarctic water, while the water in the deeper high spice variance layer has southerly origin and is identified as Equatorial Pacific water. The layer of low spice variance near 26.3 kg m(-3) lies between the named water masses and does not have a clear origin. Both effective horizontal diffusivity, kappa(h), and effective diapycnal diffusivity, kappa(v), are elevated relative to the diffusion coefficients set in the numerical simulation, but changes in kappa(h) and kappa(v) with depth are not sufficient to explain the observed layering of thermohaline structure.

Todd, RE, Rudnick DL, Mazloff MR, Davis RE, Cornuelle BD.  2011.  Poleward flows in the southern California Current System: Glider observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 116   10.1029/2010jc006536   AbstractWebsite

Three years of continuous Spray glider observations in the southern California Current System (CCS) are combined with a numerical simulation to describe the mean and variability of poleward flows in the southern CCS. Gliders provide upper ocean observations with good across-shore and temporal resolution along two across-shore survey lines while the numerical simulation provides a dynamically consistent estimate of the ocean state. Persistent poleward flows are observed in three areas: within 100 km of the coast at Point Conception, within the Southern California Bight (SCB), and offshore of the SCB and the Santa Rosa Ridge (SRR). Poleward transport by the flows within the SCB and offshore of the SRR exceeds the poleward transport off Point Conception, suggesting that the poleward flows are not continuous over the 225 km between observation lines. The numerical simulation shows offshore transport between the survey lines that is consistent with some of the poleward flow turning offshore before reaching Point Conception. The poleward current offshore of the SRR is unique in that it is strongest at depths greater than 350 m and it is observed to migrate westward away from the coast. This westward propagation is tied to westward propagating density anomalies originating in the SCB during the spring-summer upwelling season when wind stress curl is most strongly positive. The across-shore wave number, frequency, and phase speed of the westward propagation and the lack of across-shore transport of salinity along isopycnals are consistent with first-mode baroclinic Rossby dynamics.