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Roux, P, Kuperman WA, Cornuelle BD, Aulanier F, Hodgkiss WS, Song HC.  2013.  Analyzing sound speed fluctuations in shallow water from group-velocity versus phase-velocity data representation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 133:1945-1952.   10.1121/1.4792354   AbstractWebsite

Data collected over more than eight consecutive hours between two source-receiver arrays in a shallow water environment are analyzed through the physics of the waveguide invariant. In particular, the use of vertical arrays on both the source and receiver sides provides source and receiver angles in addition to travel-times associated with a set of eigenray paths in the waveguide. From the travel-times and the source-receiver angles, the eigenrays are projected into a group-velocity versus phase-velocity (Vg-Vp) plot for each acquisition. The time evolution of the Vg-Vp representation over the 8.5-h long experiment is discussed. Group speed fluctuations observed for a set of eigenrays with turning points at different depths in the water column are compared to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Fontan, A, Cornuelle B.  2015.  Anisotropic response of surface circulation to wind forcing, as inferred from high-frequency radar currents in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 120:2945-2957.   10.1002/2014jc010671   AbstractWebsite

The short-term (less than 20 days) response of surface circulation to wind has been determined in waters of the southeastern Bay of Biscay, using wind impulse response (time domain) and transfer (frequency domain) functions relating high-frequency radar currents and reanalysis winds. The response of surface currents is amplified at the near-inertial frequency and the low-frequency and it varies spatially. The analysis indicates that the response of the ocean to the wind is slightly anisotropic, likely due to pressure gradients and friction induced by the bottom and coastline boundaries in this region. Thus, the transfer function at the near-inertial frequency decreases onshore due to the coastline inhibition of circularly polarized near-inertial motion. In contrast, the low-frequency transfer function is enhanced toward the coast as a result of the geostrophic balance between the cross-shore pressure gradient and the Coriolis forces. The transfer functions also vary with season. In summer, the current response to wind is expected to be stronger but shallower due to stratification; in winter, the larger mixed layer depth results in a weaker but deeper response. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical description of wind-driven circulation and can be used to develop a statistical model with a broad range of applications including accurate oceanic forecasting and understanding of the coupled atmosphere-ocean influence on marine ecosystems.

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Miller, AJ, Neilson DJ, Luther DS, Hendershott MC, Cornuelle BD, Worcester PF, Dzieciuch MA, Dushaw BD, Howe BM, Levin JC, Arango HG, Haidvogel DB.  2007.  Barotropic Rossby wave radiation from a model Gulf Stream. Geophysical Research Letters. 34   10.1029/2007gl031937   AbstractWebsite

The barotropic Rossby wave field in the North Atlantic Ocean is studied in an eddy-resolving ocean model simulation. The meandering model Gulf Stream radiates barotropic Rossby waves southward through preferred corridors defined by topographic features. The smoother region between the Bermuda Rise and the mid-Atlantic Ridge is a particularly striking corridor of barotropic wave radiation in the 20-50 day period band. Barotropic Rossby waves are also preferentially excited at higher frequencies over the Bermuda Rise, suggesting resonant excitation of topographic Rossby normal modes. The prevalence of these radiated waves suggests that they may be an important energy sink for the equilibrium state of the Gulf Stream.

C
Morawitz, WML, Cornuelle BD, Worcester PF.  1996.  A case study in three-dimensional inverse methods: Combining hydrographic, acoustic, and moored thermistor data in the Greenland sea. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 13:659-679.   10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0659:acsitd>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A variety of measurements, including acoustic travel times, moored thermistor time series, and hydrographic stations, were made in the Greenland Sea during 1988-89 to study the evolution of the temperature held throughout the year. This region is of intense oceanographic interest because it is one of the few areas in the world where open-ocean convection to great depths has been observed. This paper describes how the various data types were optimally combined using linear, weighted least squares inverse methods to provide significantly more information about the ocean than can be obtained from any single data type. The application of these methods requires construction of a reference state, a statistical model of ocean temperature variability relative to the reference state, and an analysis of the differing signal-to-noise ratios of each data type. A time-dependent reference state was constructed from all available hydrographic data, reflecting !he basic seasonal variability and keeping the perturbations sufficiently small so that linear inverse methods are applicable. Smoothed estimates of the vertical and horizontal covariances of the sound speed (temperature) variability were derived separately for summer and winter from all available hydrographic and moored thermistor data. The vertical covariances were normalized before bring decomposed into eigenvectors, so that eigenvectors were optimized to fit a fixed percentage of the variance at every depth. The 12 largest redimensionalized eigenvectors compose the vertical basis of the model. A spectral decomposition of a 40-km correlation scale Gaussian covariance is used as the horizontal basis. The uncertainty estimates provided by the inverse method illustrate the characteristics of each dataset in measuring large-scale features during a diversely sampled time period in the winter of 1989. The acoustic data alone resolve about 70% of the variance in the three-dimensional, 3-day average temperature field. The hydrographic data alone resolve approximately 65% of the variance during the selected period but are much less dense or absent over most of the year. The thermistor array alone resolves from 10% to 65% of the temperature variance, doing better near the surface where the most measurements were taken. The combination of the complete 1988-89 acoustic, hydrographic, and thermistor datasets give three-dimensional temperature and heat content estimates that resolve on average about 90% of the expected variance during this particularly densely sampled time period.

Gawarkiewicz, G, Jan S, Lermusiaux PFJ, McClean JL, Centurioni L, Taylor K, Cornuelle B, Duda TF, Wang J, Yang YJ, Sanford T, Lien RC, Lee C, Lee MA, Leslie W, Haley PJ, Niiler PP, Gopalakrishnan G, Velez-Belchi P, Lee DK, Kim YY.  2011.  Circulation and Intrusions Northeast of Taiwan: Chasing and Predicting Uncertainty in the Cold Dome. Oceanography. 24:110-121. AbstractWebsite

An important element of present oceanographic research is the assessment and quantification of uncertainty. These studies are challenging in the coastal ocean due to the wide variety of physical processes occurring on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. In order to assess new methods for quantifying and predicting uncertainty, a joint Taiwan-US field program was undertaken in August/September 2009 to compare model forecasts of uncertainties in ocean circulation and acoustic propagation, with high-resolution in situ observations. The geographical setting was the continental shelf and slope northeast of Taiwan, where a feature called the "cold dome" frequently forms. Even though it is hypothesized that Kuroshio subsurface intrusions are the water sources for the cold dome, the dome's dynamics are highly uncertain, involving multiple scales and many interacting ocean features. During the experiment, a combination of near-surface and profiling drifters, broad-scale and high-resolution hydrography, mooring arrays, remote sensing, and regional ocean model forecasts of fields and uncertainties were used to assess mean fields and uncertainties in the region. River runoff from Typhoon Morakot, which hit Taiwan August 7-8, 2009, strongly affected shelf stratification. In addition to the river runoff, a cold cyclonic eddy advected into the region north of the Kuroshio, resulting in a cold dome formation event. Uncertainty forecasts were successfully employed to guide the hydrographic sampling plans. Measurements and forecasts also shed light on the evolution of cold dome waters, including the frequency of eddy shedding to the north-northeast, and interactions with the Kuroshio and tides. For the first time in such a complex region, comparisons between uncertainty forecasts and the model skill at measurement locations validated uncertainty forecasts. To complement the real-time model simulations, historical simulations with another model show that large Kuroshio intrusions were associated with low sea surface height anomalies east of Taiwan, suggesting that there may be some degree of predictability for Kuroshio intrusions.

Willis, JK, Roemmich D, Cornuelle B.  2003.  Combining altimetric height with broadscale profile data to estimate steric height, heat storage, subsurface temperature, and sea-surface temperature variability. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2002jc001755   AbstractWebsite

A new technique is demonstrated for combining altimetric height (AH) and sea-surface temperature (SST) with in situ data to produce improved estimates of 0/800 m steric height (SH), heat content, and temperature variability. The technique uses a linear regression onto AH to construct an initial guess for the subsurface quantity. This guess is then corrected toward the in situ data creating an estimate with substantially less error than could be achieved using either data set alone. Inclusion of the SST data further improves the estimates and illustrates how the procedure can be generalized to allow inclusion of additional data sets. The technique is demonstrated over a region in the southwestern Pacific enclosing the Tasman Sea. Nine-year time series of heat storage and temperature variability, averaged over 4degrees latitude and longitude and 1 year in time, are calculated. The estimates have RMS errors of approximately 4.6 W/m(2) in heat storage, 0.10degreesC in subsurface temperature and 0.11degreesC in surface temperature, and fractional errors of 20, 28, and 18%, respectively, relative to the total variance overall spatial and temporal scales considered. These represent significant improvements over previous estimates of these quantities. All the time series show strong interannual variability including the El Nino event of 1997. Application of these techniques on a global scale could provide new insight into the variability of the general circulation and heat budget of the upper ocean.

Rudnick, DL, Gopalakrishnan G, Cornuelle BD.  2015.  Cyclonic eddies in the Gulf of Mexico: Observations by underwater gliders and simulations by numerical model. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 45:313-326.   10.1175/jpo-d-14-0138.1   AbstractWebsite

Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is dominated by the Loop Current (LC) and by Loop Current eddies (LCEs) that form at irregular multimonth intervals by separation from the LC. Comparatively small cyclonic eddies (CEs) are thought to have a controlling influence on the LCE, including its separation from the LC. Because the CEs are so dynamic and short-lived, lasting only a few weeks, they have proved a challenge to observe. This study addresses that challenge using underwater gliders. These gliders' data and satellite sea surface height (SSH) are used in a four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) assimilation in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) general circulation model (MITgcm). The model serves two purposes: first, the model's estimate of ocean state allows the analysis of four-dimensional fields, and second, the model forecasts are examined to determine the value of glider data. CEs have a Rossby number of about 0.2, implying that the effects of flow curvature, cyclostrophy, to modify the geostrophic momentum balance are slight. The velocity field in CEs is nearly depth independent, while LCEs are more baroclinic, consistent with the CEs origin on the less stratified, dense side of the LCE. CEs are formed from water in the GoM, rather than the Atlantic water that distinguishes the LCE. Model forecasts are improved by glider data, using a quality metric based on satellite SSH, with the best 2-month GoM forecast rivaling the accuracy of a global hindcast.

D
Verlinden, CMA, Sarkar J, Cornuelle BD, Kuperman WA.  2017.  Determination of acoustic waveguide invariant using ships as sources of opportunity in a shallow water marine environment. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141:EL102-EL107.   10.1121/1.4976112   AbstractWebsite

The waveguide invariant (WGI) is a property that can be used to localize acoustic radiators and extract information about the environment. Here the WGI is determined using ships as sources of opportunity, tracked using the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The relationship between range, acoustic intensity, and frequency for a ship in a known position is used to determine the WGI parameter beta. These b values are interpolated and a map of b is generated. The method is demonstrated using data collected in a field experiment on a single hydrophone in a shallow water environment off the coast of Southern California. (C) 2017 Acoustical Society of America

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Vera, MD, Heaney KD, Grp N.  2005.  The effect of bottom interaction on transmissions from the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory Kauai source. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 117:1624-1634.   10.1121/1.1854491   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic signals transmitted from a 75-Hz broadband source near Kauai as part of the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL), experiment were recorded on an array of receivers near California at a range of 3890 km, and on a vertical line array at a range of 3336 km in the Gulf of Alaska. Because the source is approximately 2 m above the seafloor, and the bottom depth at the receivers near California is approximately 1800 m, acoustic interaction with the bathymetry complicates the identification of the recorded arrivals with those present in numerical simulations of the experiment. Ray methods were used to categorize acoustic energy according to interactions with the sea bottom and surface and to examine the significance of seafloor geometry. A modal decomposition was also used to examine the role of range-dependent bathymetry and to associate the effects on the acoustic field with seafloor features at specific ranges. Parabolic-equation simulations were performed in order to investigate the sensitivity of the received signal to geoacoustic parameters; shear excitations within the seafloor were modeled using a complex-density, equivalent-fluid technique. Incorporation of bottom interaction into models of the propagation enables an identification between experimental and simulated arrivals. (c) 2005 Acoustical Society of America.

Raghukumar, K, Cornuelle BD, Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA.  2010.  Experimental demonstration of the utility of pressure sensitivity kernels in time-reversal. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 128:989-1003.   10.1121/1.3466858   AbstractWebsite

Pressure sensitivity kernels were recently applied to time-reversal acoustics in an attempt to explain the enhanced stability of the time-reversal focal spot [Raghukumar et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 98-112 (2008)]. The theoretical framework developed was also used to derive optimized source functions, closely related to the inverse filter. The use of these optimized source functions results in an inverse filter-like focal spot which is more robust to medium sound speed fluctuations than both time-reversal and the inverse filter. In this paper the theory is applied to experimental data gathered during the Focused Acoustic Fields experiment, conducted in 2005, north of Elba Island in Italy. Sensitivity kernels are calculated using a range-independent sound-speed profile, for a geometry identical to that used in the experiment, and path sensitivities are identified with observed arrivals. The validity of the kernels in tracking time-evolving Green's functions is studied, along with limitations that result from a linearized analysis. An internal wave model is used to generate an ensemble of sound speed profiles, which are then used along with the calculated sensitivity kernels to derive optimized source functions. Focal spots obtained using the observed Green's functions with these optimized source functions are then compared to those obtained using time-reversal and the inverse-filter. It is shown that these functions are able to provide a focal spot superior to time-reversal while being more robust to sound speed fluctuations than the inverse filter or time-reversal. (C) 2010 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3466858]

F
Schneider, N, Cornuelle BD.  2005.  The forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Journal of Climate. 18:4355-4373.   10.1175/jcli3527.1   AbstractWebsite

The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function of North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies, is a widely used index for decadal variability. It is shown that the PDO can be recovered from a reconstruction of North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies based on a first-order autoregressive model and forcing by variability of the Aleutian low, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and oceanic zonal advection anomalies in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension. The latter results from oceanic Rossby waves that are forced by North Pacific Ekman pumping. The SST response patterns to these processes are not orthogonal, and they determine the spatial characteristics of the PDO. The importance of the different forcing, processes is frequency dependent. At interannual time scales, forcing from ENSO and the Aleutian low determines the response in equal parts. At decadal time scales, zonal advection in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension, ENSO, and anomalies of the Aleutian low each account for similar amounts of the PDO variance. These, results support the hypothesis that the PDO is not a dynamical mode, but arises from the superposition of sea surface temperature fluctuations with different dynamical origins.

Miller, AJ, Cornuelle BD.  1999.  Forecasts from fits of frontal fluctuations. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 29:305-333.   10.1016/s0377-0265(99)00009-3   AbstractWebsite

A primitive equation ocean model is fit with strong constraints to non-synoptic hydrographic surveys in an unstable frontal current region, the Iceland-Faeroe Front. The model is first initialized from a time-independent objective analysis of non-synoptic data (spanning 2 to 6 days). A truncated set of eddy-scale basis functions is used to represent the initial error in temperature, salinity, and velocity. A series of model integrations, each perturbed with one basis function for one dependent variable in one layer, is used to determine the sensitivity to the objective-analysis initial state of the match to the non-synoptic hydrographic data. A new initial condition is then determined from a generalized inverse of the sensitivity matrix and the process is repeated to account for non-linearity. The method is first tested in 'identical twin' experiments to demonstrate the adequacy of the basis functions in representing initial condition error and the convergence of the method to the true solution. The approach is then applied to observations gathered in August 1993 in the Iceland-Faeroe Front. Model fits are successful in improving the match to the true data, leading to dynamically consistent evolution scenarios. However, the forecast skill (here defined as the variance of the model-data differences) of the model runs from the optimized initial condition is not superior to less sophisticated methods of initialization, probably due to inadequate initialization data. The limited verification data in the presence of strong frontal slopes may not be sufficient to establish Forecast skill, so that it must be judged subjectively or evaluated by other quantitative measures. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Furue, R, Jia YL, McCreary JP, Schneider N, Richards KJ, Muller P, Cornuelle BD, Avellaneda NM, Stammer D, Liu CY, Kohl A.  2015.  Impacts of regional mixing on the temperature structure of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part 1: Vertically uniform vertical diffusion. Ocean Modelling. 91:91-111.   10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.10.002   AbstractWebsite

We investigate the sensitivity of numerical model solutions to regional changes in vertical diffusion. Specifically, we vary the background diffusion coefficient, kappa(b), within spatially distinct subregions of the tropical Pacific, assess the impacts of those changes, and diagnose the processes that account for them. Solutions respond to a diffusion anomaly, delta kappa(b), in three ways. Initially, there is a fast response (several months), due to the interaction of rapidly propagating, barotropic and gravity waves with eddies and other mesoscale features. It is followed by a local response (roughly one year), the initial growth and spatial pattern of which can be explained by one-dimensional (vertical) diffusion. At this stage, temperature and salinity anomalies are generated that are either associated with a change in density ("dynamical" anomalies) or without one ("spiciness" anomalies). In a final adjustment stage, the dynamical and spiciness anomalies spread to remote regions by radiation of Rossby and Kelvin waves and by advection, respectively. In near equilibrium solutions, dynamical anomalies are generally much larger in the latitude band of the forcing, but the impact of off equatorial forcing by delta kappa(b) on the equatorial temperature structure is still significant. Spiciness anomalies spread equator ward within the pycnocline, where they are carried to the equator as part of the subsurface branch of the Pacific Subtropical Cells, and spiciness also extends to the equator via western-boundary currents. Forcing near and at the equator generates strong dynamical anomalies, and sometimes additional spiciness anomalies, at pycnocline depths. The total response of the equatorial temperature structure to delta kappa(b) in various regions depends on the strength and spatial pattern of the generation of each signal within the forcing region as well as On the processes of its spreading to the equator.

Willis, JK, Roemmich D, Cornuelle B.  2004.  Interannual variability in upper ocean heat content, temperature, and thermosteric expansion on global scales. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 109   10.1029/2003jc002260   AbstractWebsite

[1] Satellite altimetric height was combined with approximately 1,000,000 in situ temperature profiles to produce global estimates of upper ocean heat content, temperature, and thermosteric sea level variability on interannual timescales. Maps of these quantities from mid-1993 through mid-2003 were calculated using the technique developed by Willis et al. [ 2003]. The time series of globally averaged heat content contains a small amount of interannual variability and implies an oceanic warming rate of 0.86 +/- 0.12 watts per square meter of ocean (0.29 +/- 0.04 pW) from 1993 to 2003 for the upper 750 m of the water column. As a result of the warming, thermosteric sea level rose at a rate of 1.6 +/- 0.3 mm/yr over the same time period. Maps of yearly heat content anomaly show patterns of warming commensurate with ENSO variability in the tropics, but also show that a large part of the trend in global, oceanic heat content is caused by regional warming at midlatitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition to quantifying interannual variability on a global scale, this work illustrates the importance of maintaining continuously updated monitoring systems that provide global coverage of the world's oceans. Ongoing projects, such as the Jason/TOPEX series of satellite altimeters and the Argo float program, provide a critical foundation for characterizing variability on regional, basin, and global scales and quantifying the oceans' role as part of the climate system.

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Lien, RC, Ma B, Lee CM, Sanford TB, Mensah V, Centurioni LR, Cornuelle BD, Gopalakrishnan G, Gordon AL, Chang MH, Jayne SR, Yang YJ.  2015.  The Kuroshio and Luzon undercurrent east of Luzon Island. Oceanography. 28:54-63.   10.5670/oceanog.2015.81   AbstractWebsite

Current structure, transport, and water mass properties of the northward-flowing Kuroshio and the southward-flowing Luzon Undercurrent (LU) were observed for nearly one year, June 8, 2012-June 4, 2013, across the Kuroshio path at 18.75 degrees N. Observations were made from four platforms: an array of six subsurface ADCP moorings, two Seagliders, fivepressure inverted echo sounders (PIES), and five horizontal electric field (HEF) sensors, providing the most detailed time series of the Kuroshio and Luzon Undercurrent water properties to date. Ocean state estimates of the western boundary current system were performed using the MIT general circulation model-four-dimensional variational assimilation (MITgcm-4D-Var) system. Prominent Kuroshio features from observations are simulated well by the numerical model. Annual mean Kuroshio transport, averaged over all platforms, is similar to 16 Sv with a standard deviation similar to 4 Sv. Kuroshio and LU transports and water mass pathways east of Luzon are revealed by Seaglider measurements. In a layer above the salinity maximum associated with North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), Kuroshio transport is similar to 7 Sv and contains North Equatorial Current (NEC) and Western Philippine Sea (WPS) waters, with an insignificant amount of South China Sea water on the shallow western flank. In an intermediate layer containing the core of the NPTW, Kuroshio transport is similar to 10 Sv, consisting mostly of NEC water. In the lower layer of the Kuroshio, transport is similar to 1.5 Sv of mostly North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) as a part of WPS waters. Annual mean Luzon Undercurrent southward transport integrated to 1,000 m depth is similar to 2.7 Sv with a standard deviation similar to 2 Sv, carrying solely WPS waters below the salinity minimum of the NPIW. The transport of the western boundary current integrated over the full ocean depth east of Luzon Island is similar to 14 +/- 4.5 Sv. Sources of the water masses in the Kuroshio and Luzon Undercurrent are confirmed qualitatively by the numerical model.

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Schonau, MC, Rudnick DL, Cerovecki I, Gopalakrishnan G, Cornuelle BD, McClean JL, Qiu B.  2015.  The Mindanao Current mean structure and connectivity. Oceanography. 28:34-45.   10.5670/oceanog.2015.79   AbstractWebsite

The Mindanao Current (MC), a low-latitude western boundary current in the Pacific Ocean, plays an important role in heat and freshwater transport to the western Pacific warm pool and the Indian Ocean. However, there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the structure and variability of the MC and its connectivity to regional circulation. The Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current (OKMC) initiative combines four years of glider observations of the MC, a historical conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/float climatology, and results from a global strongly eddying forward ocean general circulation model simulation and a regional ocean state estimate. The MC is resolved as a strong southward current primarily within the upper 200 m, approaching 1 m s(-1), and extending roughly 300 km offshore of Mindanao. Observations and model simulations show a persistent northward Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC) below the thermocline. The MC transports water masses of North Pacific origin southward, while the MUC carries water with South Pacific characteristics northward. The subthermocline transport of the MC and the MUC is connected to other undercurrents in the Philippine Sea. The variability of this transport is a topic of continuing research.

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Cornuelle, BD, Morris MY, Roemmich DH.  1993.  An Objective Mapping Method for Estimating Geostrophic Velocity from Hydrographic Sections Including the Equator. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 98:18109-18118.   10.1029/93jc01729   AbstractWebsite

Objective mapping can remove the equatorial singularity from the problem of estimating geostrophic shear from noisy density measurements. The method uses the complete thermal wind relation, so it is valid uniformly on and off the equator. Errors in the thermal wind balance are due to neglected terms in the momentum balance, which are treated as noise in the inverse problem. The question of whether the geostrophic balance holds near the equator is restated as a need to estimate the size of the ageostrophic noise in the thermal wind equation. Objective mapping formalizes the assumptions about the magnitudes and scales of the geostrophic currents and about the magnitudes and scales of the ageostrophic terms and measurement errors. The uncertainty of the velocity estimates is calculated as part of the mapping and depends on the signal to noise ratio (geostrophic density signal to ageostrophic ''noise'') in the data, as well as the station spacing and the scales assumed for the geostrophic velocities. The method is used to map zonal velocity from a mean Hawaii-Tahiti Shuttle density section. These are compared with previous velocity estimates for the same dataset calculated using other techniques. By choosing appropriate scales, the objective map can duplicate previous results. New temperature data are presented from a repeating, high-resolution expendable bathythermograph section crossing the equator at about 170-degrees-W with four cruises a year between 1987-1991. There appear to be significant differences between this mean temperature and the shuttle mean temperature. Temperature is converted to density with the aid of a mean T-S relation and geostrophic velocity maps are calculated for the 4-year mean. The mean geostrophic undercurrent obtained from our sections is weaker than in the shuttle estimate and is centered slightly north of the equator. Enforcing symmetry about the equator removes the offset of the current, giving a stronger, but narrow undercurrent. The density field apparently includes significant (O(0.5 kg M-3)) large-scale ageostrophic variability which makes velocity estimates from single cruises poorly determined near the equator.

Colosi, JA, Duda TF, Lin YT, Lynch JF, Newhall AE, Cornuelle BD.  2012.  Observations of sound-speed fluctuations on the New Jersey continental shelf in the summer of 2006. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131:1733-1748.   10.1121/1.3666014   AbstractWebsite

Environmental sensors moored on the New Jersey continental shelf tracked constant density surfaces (isopycnals) for 35 days in the summer of 2006. Sound-speed fluctuations from internal-wave vertical isopycnal displacements and from temperature/salinity variability along isopycnals (spiciness) are analyzed using frequency spectra and vertical covariance functions. Three varieties of internal waves are studied: Diffuse broadband internal waves (akin to waves fitting the deep water Garrett/Munk spectrum), internal tides, and, to a lesser extent, nonlinear internal waves. These internal-wave contributions are approximately distinct in the frequency domain. It is found that in the main thermocline spicy thermohaline structure dominates the root mean square sound-speed variability, with smaller contributions coming from (in order) nonlinear internal waves, diffuse internal waves, and internal tides. The frequency spectra of internal-wave displacements and of spiciness have similar form, likely due to the advection of variable-spiciness water masses by horizontal internal-wave currents, although there are technical limitations to the observations at high frequency. In the low-frequency, internal-wave band the internal-wave spectrum follows frequency to the -1.81 power, whereas the spice spectrum shows a -1.73 power. Mode spectra estimated via covariance methods show that the diffuse internal-wave spectrum has a smaller mode bandwidth than Garrett/Munk and that the internal tide has significant energy in modes one through three. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3666014]

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Qiu, B, Rudnick DL, Cerovecki I, Cornuelle BD, Chen S, Schonau MC, McClean JL, Gopalakrishnan G.  2015.  The Pacific North Equatorial Current: New insights from the Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents (OKMC) Project. Oceanography. 28:24-33.   10.5670/oceanog.2015.78   AbstractWebsite

Located at the crossroads of the tropical and subtropical circulations, the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC) and its subsequent bifurcation off the Philippine coast near 13 degrees N serve as important pathways for heat and water mass exchanges between the mid- and low-latitude North Pacific Ocean. Because the western Pacific warm pool, with sea surface temperatures > 28 degrees C, extends poleward of 17 degrees N in the western North Pacific, the bifurcation and transport partitioning of the NEC into the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents are likely to affect the temporal evolution of the warm pool through lateral advection. In addition to its influence on physical conditions, NEC variability is also important to the regional biological properties and the fisheries along the Philippine coast and in the western Pacific Ocean. This article synthesizes our current understandings of the NEC, especially those garnered through the recent Origins of the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current (OKMC) project.

Todd, RE, Rudnick DL, Mazloff MR, Davis RE, Cornuelle BD.  2011.  Poleward flows in the southern California Current System: Glider observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 116   10.1029/2010jc006536   AbstractWebsite

Three years of continuous Spray glider observations in the southern California Current System (CCS) are combined with a numerical simulation to describe the mean and variability of poleward flows in the southern CCS. Gliders provide upper ocean observations with good across-shore and temporal resolution along two across-shore survey lines while the numerical simulation provides a dynamically consistent estimate of the ocean state. Persistent poleward flows are observed in three areas: within 100 km of the coast at Point Conception, within the Southern California Bight (SCB), and offshore of the SCB and the Santa Rosa Ridge (SRR). Poleward transport by the flows within the SCB and offshore of the SRR exceeds the poleward transport off Point Conception, suggesting that the poleward flows are not continuous over the 225 km between observation lines. The numerical simulation shows offshore transport between the survey lines that is consistent with some of the poleward flow turning offshore before reaching Point Conception. The poleward current offshore of the SRR is unique in that it is strongest at depths greater than 350 m and it is observed to migrate westward away from the coast. This westward propagation is tied to westward propagating density anomalies originating in the SCB during the spring-summer upwelling season when wind stress curl is most strongly positive. The across-shore wave number, frequency, and phase speed of the westward propagation and the lack of across-shore transport of salinity along isopycnals are consistent with first-mode baroclinic Rossby dynamics.

Raghukumar, K, Cornuelle BD, Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA.  2008.  Pressure sensitivity kernels applied to time-reversal acoustics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 124:98-112.   10.1121/1.2924130   AbstractWebsite

Sensitivity kernels for receptions of broadband sound transmissions are used to study the effect of the transmitted signal on the sensitivity of the reception to environmental perturbations. A first-order Born approximation is used to obtain the pressure sensitivity of the received signal to small changes in medium sound speed. The pressure perturbation to the received signal caused by medium sound speed changes is expressed as a linear combination of single-frequency sensitivity kernels weighted by the signal in the frequency domain. This formulation can be used to predict the response of a source transmission to sound speed perturbations. The stability of time-reversal is studied and compared to that of a one-way transmission using sensitivity kernels. In the absence of multipath, a reduction in pressure sensitivity using time reversal is only obtained with multiple sources. This can be attributed both to the presence of independent paths and to cancellations that occur due to the overlap of sensitivity kernels for different source-receiver paths. The sensitivity kernel is then optimized to give a new source transmission scheme that takes into account knowledge of the medium statistics and is related to the regularized inverse filter. (c) 2008 Acoustical Society of America.

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Sagen, H, Worcester PF, Dzieciuch MA, Geyer F, Sandven S, Babiker M, Beszczynska-Moller A, Dushaw BD, Cornuelle B.  2017.  Resolution, identification, and stability of broadband acoustic arrivals in Fram Strait. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141:2055-2068.   10.1121/1.4978780   AbstractWebsite

An ocean acoustic tomography system consisting of three moorings with low frequency, broad-band transceivers and a moored receiver located approximately in the center of the triangle formed by the transceivers was installed in the central, deep-water part of Fram Strait during 2010-2012. Comparisons of the acoustic receptions with predictions based on hydrographic sections show that the oceanographic conditions in Fram Strait result in complex arrival patterns in which it is difficult to resolve and identify individual arrivals. In addition, the early arrivals are unstable, with the arrival structures changing significantly over time. The stability parameter a suggests that the instability is likely not due to small-scale variability, but rather points toward strong mesoscale variability in the presence of a relatively weak sound channel as being largely responsible. The estimator-correlator [Dzieciuch, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2512-2522 (2014)] is shown to provide an objective formalism for generating travel-time series given the complex propagation conditions. Because travel times obtained from the estimator-correlator are not associated with resolved, identified ray arrivals, inverse methods are needed that do not use sampling kernels constructed from geometric ray paths. One possible approach would be to use travel-time sensitivity kernels constructed for the estimator-correlator outputs. (C) 2017 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Skarsoulis, EK, Cornuelle BD, Dzieciuch MA.  2011.  Second-Order Sensitivity of Acoustic Travel Times to Sound Speed Perturbations. Acta Acustica United with Acustica. 97:533-543.   10.3813/aaa.918434   AbstractWebsite

The second-order sensitivity of finite-frequency acoustic travel times to sound speed perturbations in range-independent environments is studied. Using the notion of peak arrivals and the normal-mode representation of the Green's function first- and second-order perturbation expressions are derived for the travel times in terms of the underlying perturbations in the Green's function and finally in the sound speed profile. The resulting theoretical expressions are numerically validated. Assuming small and local perturbations the non-linear effects appear to be strongest for sound speed perturbations taking place close to the lower turning depths of the corresponding eigenrays. At the upper turning depths - in the case of temperate propagation conditions - the effects are much weaker due to the larger sound speed gradients. The magnitude of the second-order sensitivity of travel times relative to the first-order sensitivity can be used to obtain an estimate for the limits of linearity.

Sarkar, J, Marandet C, Roux P, Walker S, Cornuelle BD, Kuperman WA.  2012.  Sensitivity kernel for surface scattering in a waveguide. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131:111-118.   10.1121/1.3665999   AbstractWebsite

Using the Born approximation, a linearized sensitivity kernel is derived to describe the relationship between a local change at the free surface and its effect on the acoustic propagation in the water column. The structure of the surface scattering kernel is investigated numerically and experimentally for the case of a waveguide at the ultrasonic scale. To better demonstrate the sensitivity of the multipath propagation to the introduction of a localized perturbation at the air-water interface, the kernel is formulated both in terms of point-to-point and beam-to-beam representations. Agreement between theory and experiment suggests applications to sensitivity analysis of the wavefield for sea surface perturbations. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3665999]

Roux, P, Cornuelle BD, Kuperman WA, Hodgkiss WS.  2008.  The structure of raylike arrivals in a shallow-water waveguide. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 124:3430-3439.   10.1121/1.2996330   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic remote sensing of the oceans requires a detailed understanding of the acoustic forward problem. The results of a shallow-water transmission experiment between a vertical array of sources and a vertical array of receivers are reported. The source array is used to provide additional degrees of freedom to isolate and track raylike arrivals by beamforming over both source and receiver arrays. The coordinated source-receiver array processing procedure is presented and its effectiveness in an example of tracking raylike arrivals in a fluctuating ocean environment is shown. Many of these arrivals can be tracked over an hour or more and show slowly varying amplitude and phase. The use of a double-beamforming algorithm lays the foundation for shallow-water acoustic remote sensing using travel time and source and receive angles of selected eigenrays. (C) 2008 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.2996330]