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Baggeroer, AB, Birdsall TG, Clark C, Colosi JA, Cornuelle BD, Costa D, Dushaw BD, Dzieciuch M, Forbes AMG, Hill C, Howe BM, Marshall J, Menemenlis D, Mercer JA, Metzger K, Munk W, Spindel RC, Stammer D, Worcester PF, Wunsch C.  1998.  Ocean climate change; comparison of acoustic tomography, satellite altimetry, and modeling. Science. 281:1327-1332., Washington, DC, United States (USA): American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC   10.1126/science.281.5381.1327   AbstractWebsite

Comparisons of gyre-scale acoustic and direct thermal measurements of heat content in the Pacific Ocean, satellite altimeter measurements of sea surface height, and results from a general circulation model show that only about half of the seasonal and year-to-year changes in sea level are attributable to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore complicated. The annual cycle of heat flux is 150 ± 25 watts per square meter (peak-to-peak, corresponding to a 0.2°C vertically averaged temperature cycle); an interannual change of similar magnitude is also detected. Meteorological estimates of surface heat flux, if accurate, require a large seasonal cycle in the advective heat flux.

Behringer, D, Birdsall T, Brown M, Cornuelle B, Heinmiller R, Knox R, Metzger K, Munk W, Spiesberger J, Spindel R, Webb D, Worcester P, Wunsch C.  1982.  A demonstration of ocean acoustic tomography. Nature. 299:121-125.   10.1038/299121a0   AbstractWebsite

Over the past decade oceanographers have become increasingly aware of an intense and compact ocean ‘mesoscale’ eddy structure (the ocean weather) that is superimposed on a generally sluggish large-scale circulation (the ocean climate). Traditional ship-based observing systems are not adequate for monitoring the ocean at mesoscale resolution. A 1981 experiment mapped the waters within a 300 × 300 km square south-west of Bermuda, using a peripheral array of moored midwater acoustic sources and receivers. The variable acoustic travel times between all source–receiver pairs were used to construct the three-dimensional (time-variable) eddy fields, using inverse theory. Preliminary results from inversions are consistent with the shipborne and airborne surveys.