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Baggeroer, AB, Scheer EK, Colosi JA, Cornuelle BD, Dushaw BD, Dzieciuch MA, Howe BM, Mercer JA, Munk W, Spindel RC, Worcester PF.  2005.  Statistics and vertical directionality of low-frequency ambient noise at the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory site. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 117:1643-1665.   10.1121/1.1855035   AbstractWebsite

We examine statistical and directional properties of the ambient noise in the 10-100 Hz frequency band from the NPAL array. Marginal probability densities are estimated as well as mean square levels, skewness and kurtoses in third octave bands. The kurotoses are markedly different from Gaussian except when only distant shipping is present. Extremal levels reached similar to 150 dB re 1 mu Pa, suggesting levels 60dB greater than the mean ambient were common in the NPAL data sets. Generally, these were passing ships. We select four examples: i) quiescent noise, ii) nearby shipping, iii) whale vocalizations and iv) a micro earthquake for the vertical directional properties of the NPAL noise since they are representative of the phenomena encountered. We find there is modest broadband coherence for most of these cases in their occupancy band across the NPAL aperture. Narrowband coherence analysis from VLA to VLA was not successful due to ambiguities. Examples of localizing sources based upon this coherence are included. kw diagrams allow us to use data above the vertical aliasing frequency. Ducted propagation for both the quiescent, and micro earthquake (T phase) are identified and the arrival angles of nearby shipping and whale vocalizations. MFP localizations were modestly successful for nearby sources, but long range ones could not be identified, most likely because of signal mismatch in the MFP replica. 2005 Acoustical Society of America.

Baggeroer, AB, Birdsall TG, Clark C, Colosi JA, Cornuelle BD, Costa D, Dushaw BD, Dzieciuch M, Forbes AMG, Hill C, Howe BM, Marshall J, Menemenlis D, Mercer JA, Metzger K, Munk W, Spindel RC, Stammer D, Worcester PF, Wunsch C.  1998.  Ocean climate change; comparison of acoustic tomography, satellite altimetry, and modeling. Science. 281:1327-1332., Washington, DC, United States (USA): American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC   10.1126/science.281.5381.1327   AbstractWebsite

Comparisons of gyre-scale acoustic and direct thermal measurements of heat content in the Pacific Ocean, satellite altimeter measurements of sea surface height, and results from a general circulation model show that only about half of the seasonal and year-to-year changes in sea level are attributable to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore complicated. The annual cycle of heat flux is 150 ± 25 watts per square meter (peak-to-peak, corresponding to a 0.2°C vertically averaged temperature cycle); an interannual change of similar magnitude is also detected. Meteorological estimates of surface heat flux, if accurate, require a large seasonal cycle in the advective heat flux.

Behringer, D, Birdsall T, Brown M, Cornuelle B, Heinmiller R, Knox R, Metzger K, Munk W, Spiesberger J, Spindel R, Webb D, Worcester P, Wunsch C.  1982.  A demonstration of ocean acoustic tomography. Nature. 299:121-125.   10.1038/299121a0   AbstractWebsite

Over the past decade oceanographers have become increasingly aware of an intense and compact ocean ‘mesoscale’ eddy structure (the ocean weather) that is superimposed on a generally sluggish large-scale circulation (the ocean climate). Traditional ship-based observing systems are not adequate for monitoring the ocean at mesoscale resolution. A 1981 experiment mapped the waters within a 300 × 300 km square south-west of Bermuda, using a peripheral array of moored midwater acoustic sources and receivers. The variable acoustic travel times between all source–receiver pairs were used to construct the three-dimensional (time-variable) eddy fields, using inverse theory. Preliminary results from inversions are consistent with the shipborne and airborne surveys.

Boas, ABV, Ardhuin F, Ayet A, Bourassa MA, Brandt P, Chapron B, Cornuelle BD, Farrar JT, Fewings MR, Fox-Kemper B, Gille ST, Gommenginger C, Heimbach P, Hell MC, Li Q, Mazloff MR, Merrifield ST, Mouche A, Rio MH, Rodriguez E, Shutler JD, Subramanian AC, Terrill EJ, Tsamados M, Ubelmann C, van Sebille E.  2019.  Integrated observations of global surface winds, currents, and waves: Requirements and challenges for the next decade. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6   10.3389/fmars.2019.00425   AbstractWebsite

Ocean surface winds, currents, and waves play a crucial role in exchanges of momentum, energy, heat, freshwater, gases, and other tracers between the ocean, atmosphere, and ice. Despite surface waves being strongly coupled to the upper ocean circulation and the overlying atmosphere, efforts to improve ocean, atmospheric, and wave observations and models have evolved somewhat independently. From an observational point of view, community efforts to bridge this gap have led to proposals for satellite Doppler oceanography mission concepts, which could provide unprecedented measurements of absolute surface velocity and directional wave spectrum at global scales. This paper reviews the present state of observations of surface winds, currents, and waves, and it outlines observational gaps that limit our current understanding of coupled processes that happen at the air-sea-ice interface. A significant challenge for the coming decade of wind, current, and wave observations will come in combining and interpreting measurements from (a) wave-buoys and high-frequency radars in coastal regions, (b) surface drifters and wave-enabled drifters in the open-ocean, marginal ice zones, and wave-current interaction "hot-spots," and (c) simultaneous measurements of absolute surface currents, ocean surface wind vector, and directional wave spectrum from Doppler satellite sensors.