Variability in protist grazing and growth on different marine Synechococcus isolates.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77:3074-3084. 10.1128/aem.02241-10 Abstract
Grazing mortality of the marine phytoplankton Synechococcus is dominated by planktonic protists, yet rates of consumption and factors regulating grazer-Synechococcus interactions are poorly understood. One aspect of predator-prey interactions for which little is known are the mechanisms by which Synechococcus avoids or resists predation and, in turn, how this relates to the ability of Synechococcus to support growth of protist grazer populations. Grazing experiments conducted with the raptorial dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and phylogenetically diverse Synechococcus isolates (strains WH8102, CC9605, CC9311, and CC9902) revealed marked differences in grazing rates-specifically that WH8102 was grazed at significantly lower rates than all other isolates. Additional experiments using the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Goniomonas pacifica and the filter-feeding tintinnid ciliate Eutintinnis sp. revealed that this pattern in grazing susceptibility among the isolates transcended feeding guilds and grazer taxon. Synechococcus cell size, elemental ratios, and motility were not able to explain differences in grazing rates, indicating that other features play a primary role in grazing resistance. Growth of heterotrophic protists was poorly coupled to prey ingestion and was influenced by the strain of Synechococcus being consumed. Although Synechococcus was generally a poor-quality food source, it tended to support higher growth and survival of G. pacifica and O. marina relative to Eutintinnis sp., indicating that suitability of Synechococcus varies among grazer taxa and may be a more suitable food source for the smaller protist grazers. This work has developed tractable model systems for further studies of grazer-Synechococcus interactions in marine microbial food webs.
Characterization of a functional vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311.
Journal of Phycology. 47:792-801. 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01007.x Abstract
Vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases (VBPOs) are characterized by the ability to oxidize halides using hydrogen peroxide. These enzymes are well-studied in eukaryotic macroalgae and are known to produce a variety of brominated secondary metabolites. Though genes have been annotated as VBPO in multiple prokaryotic genomes, they remain un-characterized. The genome of the coastal marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 encodes a predicted VBPO (YP_731869.1, sync_2681), and in this study, we show that protein extracts from axenic cultures of Synechococcus possess bromoperoxidase activity, oxidizing bromide and iodide, but not chloride. In-gel activity assays of Synechococcus proteins separated using PAGE reveal a single band having VBPO activity. When sequenced via liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), peptides from the band aligned to the VBPO sequence predicted by the open reading frame (ORF) sync_2681. We show that a VBPO gene is present in a closely related strain, Synechococcus sp. WH8020, but not other clade I Synechococcus strains, consistent with recent horizontal transfer of the gene into Synechococcus. Diverse cyanobacterial-like VBPO genes were detected in a pelagic environment off the California coast using PCR. Investigation of functional VBPOs in unicellular cyanobacteria may lead to discovery of novel halogenated molecules and a better understanding of these organisms' chemical ecology and physiology.