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Lerczak, J, Barth JA, Celona S, Chickadel C, Colosi J, Feddersen F, Haller M, Haney S, Lenain L, MacKinnon J, MacMahan J, Melville K, O’Dea A, Smit P, Waterhouse AF, Xu T.  2019.  Untangling a web of interactions where surf meets coastal ocean. Eos. 100   10.1029/2019EO122141   Abstract
Roemmich, D, Alford MH, Claustre H, Johnson K, King B, Moum J, Oke P, Owens WB, Pouliquen S, Purkey S, Scanderbeg M, Suga T, Wijffels S, Zilberman N, Bakker D, Baringer M, Belbeoch M, Bittig HC, Boss E, Calil P, Carse F, Carval T, Chai F, Conchubhair DO, D'Ortenzio F, Dall'Olmo G, Desbruyeres D, Fennel K, Fer I, Ferrari R, Forget G, Freeland H, Fujiki T, Gehlen M, Greenan B, Hallberg R, Hibiya T, Hosoda S, Jayne S, Jochum M, Johnson GC, Kang K, Kolodziejczyk N, Kortzinger A, Le Traon PY, Lenn YD, Maze G, Mork KA, Morris T, Nagai T, Nash J, Garabato AN, Olsen A, Pattabhi RR, Prakash S, Riser S, Schmechtig C, Schmid C, Shroyer E, Sterl A, Sutton P, Talley L, Tanhua T, Thierry V, Thomalla S, Toole J, Troisi A, Trull TW, Turton J, Velez-Belchi PJ, Walczowski W, Wang HL, Wanninkhof R, Waterhouse AF, Waterman S, Watson A, Wilson C, Wong APS, Xu JP, Yasuda I.  2019.  On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6   10.3389/fmars.2019.00439   AbstractWebsite

The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i) improve Argo's global coverage and value beyond the original design, (ii) extend Argo to span the full ocean depth, (iii) add biogeochemical sensors for improved understanding of oceanic cycles of carbon, nutrients, and ecosystems, and (iv) consider experimental sensors that might be included in the future, for example to document the spatial and temporal patterns of ocean mixing. For Core Argo and each of these enhancements, the past, present, and future progression along a path from experimental deployments to regional pilot arrays to global implementation is described. The objective is to create a fully global, top-to-bottom, dynamically complete, and multidisciplinary Argo Program that will integrate seamlessly with satellite and with other in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System (Legler et al., 2015). The integrated system will deliver operational reanalysis and forecasting capability, and assessment of the state and variability of the climate system with respect to physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems parameters. It will enable basic research of unprecedented breadth and magnitude, and a wealth of ocean-education and outreach opportunities.

Vic, C, Naveira Garabato AC, Green MJA, Waterhouse AF, Zhao Z, Melet A, de Lavergne C, Buijsman MC, Stephenson GR.  2019.  Deep-ocean mixing driven by small-scale internal tides. Nature Communications. 10(1):2099.   10.1038/s41467-019-10149-5   AbstractWebsite

Turbulent mixing in the ocean is key to regulate the transport of heat, freshwater and biogeochemical tracers, with strong implications for Earth’s climate. In the deep ocean, tides supply much of the mechanical energy required to sustain mixing via the generation of internal waves, known as internal tides, whose fate—the relative importance of their local versus remote breaking into turbulence—remains uncertain. Here, we combine a semi-analytical model of internal tide generation with satellite and in situ measurements to show that from an energetic viewpoint, small-scale internal tides, hitherto overlooked, account for the bulk (>50%) of global internal tide generation, breaking and mixing. Furthermore, we unveil the pronounced geographical variations of their energy proportion, ignored by current parameterisations of mixing in climate-scale models. Based on these results, we propose a physically consistent, observationally supported approach to accurately represent the dissipation of small-scale internal tides and their induced mixing in climate-scale models.

Ramachandran, S, Tandon A, MacKinnon J, Lucas AJ, Pinkel R, Waterhouse AF, Nash J, Shroyer E, Mahadevan A, Weller RA, Farrar JT.  2018.  Submesoscale processes at shallow salinity fronts in the Bay of Bengal: Observations during the winter monsoon. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:479-509.   10.1175/jpo-d-16-0283.1   AbstractWebsite

Lateral submesoscale processes and their influence on vertical stratification at shallow salinity fronts in the central Bay of Bengal during the winter monsoon are explored using high-resolution data from a cruise in November 2013. The observations are from a radiator survey centered at a salinity-controlled density front, embedded in a zone of moderate mesoscale strain (0.15 times the Coriolis parameter) and forced by winds with a downfront orientation. Below a thin mixed layer, often <= 10 m, the analysis shows several dynamical signatures indicative of submesoscale processes: (i) negative Ertel potential vorticity (PV); (ii) low-PV anomalies with O(1-10) km lateral extent, where the vorticity estimated on isopycnals and the isopycnal thickness are tightly coupled, varying in lockstep to yield low PV; (iii) flow conditions susceptible to forced symmetric instability (FSI) or bearing the imprint of earlier FSI events; (iv) negative lateral gradients in the absolute momentum field (inertial instability); and (v) strong contribution from differential sheared advection at O(1) km scales to the growth rate of the depth-averaged stratification. The findings here show one-dimensional vertical processes alone cannot explain the vertical stratification and its lateral variability over O(1-10) km scales at the radiator survey.

Waterhouse, AF, Kelly SM, Zhao Z, MacKinnon JA, Nash JD, Simmons H, Brahznikov D, Rainville L, Alford M, Pinkel R.  2018.  Observations of the Tasman Sea Internal Tide Beam. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:1283-1297.   10.1175/JPO-D-17-0116.1   AbstractWebsite

AbstractLow-mode internal tides, a dominant part of the internal wave spectrum, carry energy over large distances, yet the ultimate fate of this energy is unknown. Internal tides in the Tasman Sea are generated at Macquarie Ridge, south of New Zealand, and propagate northwest as a focused beam before impinging on the Tasmanian continental slope. In situ observations from the Tasman Sea capture synoptic measurements of the incident semidiurnal mode-1 internal-tide, which has an observed wavelength of 183 km and surface displacement of approximately 1 cm. Plane-wave fits to in situ and altimetric estimates of surface displacement agree to within a measurement uncertainty of 0.3 cm, which is the same order of magnitude as the nonstationary (not phase locked) mode-1 tide observed over a 40-day mooring deployment. Stationary energy flux, estimated from a plane-wave fit to the in situ observations, is directed toward Tasmania with a magnitude of 3.4 ± 1.4 kW m−1, consistent with a satellite estimate of 3.9 ± 2.2 kW m−1. Approximately 90% of the time-mean energy flux is due to the stationary tide. However, nonstationary velocity and pressure, which are typically 1/4 the amplitude of the stationary components, sometimes lead to instantaneous energy fluxes that are double or half of the stationary energy flux, overwhelming any spring–neap variability. Despite strong winds and intermittent near-inertial currents, the parameterized turbulent-kinetic-energy dissipation rate is small (i.e., 10−10 W kg−1) below the near surface and observations of mode-1 internal tide energy-flux convergence are indistinguishable from zero (i.e., the confidence intervals include zero), indicating little decay of the mode-1 internal tide within the Tasman Sea.

Shroyer, EL, Nash JD, Waterhouse AF, Moum JN.  2017.  Measuring Ocean Turbulence. Observing the Oceans in Real Time. ( Venkatesan R, Tandon A, D'Asaro E, Atmanand MA, Eds.).: Springer International Publishing   10.1007/978-3-319-66493-4  
Waterhouse, AF, MacKinnon JA, Musgrave RC, Kelly SM, Pickering A, Nash J.  2017.  Internal Tide Convergence and Mixing in a Submarine Canyon. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 47:303-322.   10.1175/JPO-D-16-0073.1   AbstractWebsite

Observations from Eel Canyon, located on the north coast of California, show that elevated turbulence in the full water column arises from the convergence of remotely generated internal wave energy. The incoming semidiurnal and bottom-trapped diurnal internal tides generate complex interference patterns. The semidiurnal internal tide sets up a partly standing wave within the canyon due to reflection at the canyon head, dissipating all of its energy within the canyon. Dissipation in the near bottom is associated with the diurnal trapped tide, while midwater isopycnal shear and strain is associated with the semidiurnal tide. Dissipation is elevated up to 600 m off the bottom, in contrast to observations over the flat continental shelf where dissipation occurs closer to the topography. Slope canyons are sinks for internal wave energy and may have important influences on the global distribution of tidally driven mixing.

MacKinnon, JA, Alford MH, Ansong JK, Arbic BK, Barna A, Briegleb BP, Bryan FO, Buijsman MC, Chassignet EP, Danabasoglu G, Diggs S, Griffies SM, Hallberg RW, Jayne SR, Jochum M, Klymak JM, Kunze E, Large WG, Legg S, Mater B, Melet AV, Merchant LM, Musgrave R, Nash JD, Norton NJ, Pickering A, Pinkel R, Polzin K, Simmons HL, Laurent LSC, Sun OM, Trossman DS, Waterhouse AF, Whalen CB, Zhao Z.  2017.  Climate Process Team on Internal-Wave Driven Ocean Mixing. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. :null.   10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0030.1   AbstractWebsite

CapsuleRecent advances in our understanding of internal-wave driven turbulent mixing in the ocean interior are summarized. New parameterizations for global climate ocean models, and their climate impacts, are introduced.

Musgrave, RC, MacKinnon JA, Pinkel R, Waterhouse AF, Nash J, Kelly SM.  2017.  The Influence of Subinertial Internal Tides on Near-Topographic Turbulence at the Mendocino Ridge: Observations and Modeling. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 47:2139-2154.   10.1175/JPO-D-16-0278.1   AbstractWebsite

AbstractShipboard measurements of velocity and density were obtained in the vicinity of a small channel in the Mendocino Ridge, where flows were predominantly tidal. Measured daily inequalities in transport are much greater than those predicted by a barotropic tide model, with the strongest transport associated with full depth flows and the weakest with shallow, surface-confined flows. A regional numerical model of the area finds that the subinertial K1 (diurnal) tidal constituent generates topographically trapped waves that propagate anticyclonically around the ridge and are associated with enhanced near-topographic K1 transports. The interaction of the baroclinic trapped waves with the surface tide produces a tidal flow whose northward transports alternate between being surface confined and full depth. Full depth flows are associated with the generation of a large-amplitude tidal lee wave on the northward face of the ridge, while surface-confined flows are largely nonturbulent. The regional model demonstrates that, consistent with field observations, near-topographic dissipation over the entire ridge is diurnally modulated, despite the semidiurnal tidal constituent having larger barotropic velocities. It is concluded that at this location it is the bottom-trapped subinertial internal tide that governs near-topographic dissipation and mixing. The effect of the trapped wave on regional energetics is to increase the fraction of converted barotropic–baroclinic tidal energy that dissipates locally.

MacKinnon, JA, Nash JD, Alford MH, Lucas AJ, Mickett JB, Shroyer EL, Waterhouse AF, Tandon A, Sengupta D, Mahadevan A, Ravichandran M, Pinkel R, Rudnick DL, Whalen CB, Alberty MS, Lekha JS, Fine EC, Chaudhuri D, Wagner GL.  2016.  A tale of two spicy seas. Oceanography. 29:50-61.   10.5670/oceanog.2016.38   AbstractWebsite

Upper-ocean turbulent heat fluxes in the Bay of Bengal and the Arctic Ocean drive regional monsoons and sea ice melt, respectively, important issues of societal interest. In both cases, accurate prediction of these heat transports depends on proper representation of the small-scale structure of vertical stratification, which in turn is created by a host of complex submesoscale processes. Though half a world apart and having dramatically different temperatures, there are surprising similarities between the two: both have (1) very fresh surface layers that are largely decoupled from the ocean below by a sharp halocline barrier, (2) evidence of interleaving lateral and vertical gradients that set upper-ocean stratification, and (3) vertical turbulent heat fluxes within the upper ocean that respond sensitively to these structures. However, there are clear differences in each ocean's horizontal scales of variability, suggesting that despite similar background states, the sharpening and evolution of mesoscale gradients at convergence zones plays out quite differently. Here, we conduct a qualitative and statistical comparison of these two seas, with the goal of bringing to light fundamental underlying dynamics that will hopefully improve the accuracy of forecast models in both parts of the world.

Musgrave, RC, MacKinnon JA, Pinkel R, Waterhouse AF, Nash JD.  2016.  Tidally driven processes leading to near-field turbulence in a channel at the crest of the Mendocino Escarpment*. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 46:1137-1155.   10.1175/jpo-d-15-0021.1   Abstract

In situ observations of tidally driven turbulence were obtained in a small channel that transects the crest of the Mendocino Ridge, a site of mixed (diurnal and semidiurnal) tides. Diurnal tides are subinertial at this latitude, and once per day a trapped tide leads to large flows through the channel giving rise to tidal excursion lengths comparable to the width of the ridge crest. During these times, energetic turbulence is observed in the channel, with overturns spanning almost half of the full water depth. A high-resolution, nonhydrostatic, 2.5-dimensional simulation is used to interpret the observations in terms of the advection of a breaking tidal lee wave that extends from the ridge crest to the surface and the subsequent development of a hydraulic jump on the flanks of the ridge. Modeled dissipation rates show that turbulence is strongest on the flanks of the ridge and that local dissipation accounts for 28% of the energy converted from the barotropic tide into baroclinic motion.

Wijesekera, HW, Shroyer E, Tandon A, Ravichandran M, Sengupta D, Jinadasa SUP, Fernando HJS, Agrawal N, Arulananthan K, Bhat GS, Baumgartner M, Buckley J, Centurioni L, Conry P, Farrar TJ, Gordon AL, Hormann V, Jarosz E, Jensen TG, Johnston S, Lankhorst M, Lee CM, Leo LS, Lozovatsky I, Lucas AJ, MacKinnon J, Mahadevan A, Nash J, Omand MM, Pham H, Pinkel R, Rainville L, Ramachandran S, Rudnick DL, Sarkar S, Send U, Sharma R, Simmons H, Stafford KM, Laurent LS, Venayagamoorthy K, Venkatesan R, Teague WJ, Wang DW, Waterhouse AF, Weller R, Whalen CB.  2016.  ASIRI: An Ocean–Atmosphere Initiative for Bay of Bengal. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 97:1859-1884.   10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00197.1   AbstractWebsite

AbstractAir–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean (ASIRI) is an international research effort (2013–17) aimed at understanding and quantifying coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) with relevance to Indian Ocean monsoons. Working collaboratively, more than 20 research institutions are acquiring field observations coupled with operational and high-resolution models to address scientific issues that have stymied the monsoon predictability. ASIRI combines new and mature observational technologies to resolve submesoscale to regional-scale currents and hydrophysical fields. These data reveal BoB’s sharp frontal features, submesoscale variability, low-salinity lenses and filaments, and shallow mixed layers, with relatively weak turbulent mixing. Observed physical features include energetic high-frequency internal waves in the southern BoB, energetic mesoscale and submesoscale features including an intrathermocline eddy in the central BoB, and a high-resolution view of the exchange along the periphery of Sri Lanka, which includes the 100-km-wide East India Coastal Current (EICC) carrying low-salinity water out of the BoB and an adjacent, broad northward flow (∼300 km wide) that carries high-salinity water into BoB during the northeast monsoon. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) observations during the decaying phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) permit the study of multiscale atmospheric processes associated with non-MJO phenomena and their impacts on the marine boundary layer. Underway analyses that integrate observations and numerical simulations shed light on how air–sea interactions control the ABL and upper-ocean processes.

Whalen, CB, MacKinnon JA, Talley LD, Waterhouse AF.  2015.  Estimating the Mean Diapycnal Mixing Using a Finescale Strain Parameterization. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 45:1174–1188.   Abstract

Finescale methods are currently being applied to estimate the mean turbulent dissipation rate and diffusivity on regional and global scales. This study evaluates finescale estimates derived from isopycnal strain by comparing them with average microstructure profiles from six diverse environments including the equator, above ridges, near seamounts, and in strong currents. The finescale strain estimates are derived from at least 10 nearby Argo profiles (generally <60 km distant) with no temporal restrictions, including measurements separated by seasons or decades. The absence of temporal limits is reasonable in these cases, since the authors find the dissipation rate is steady over seasonal time scales at the latitudes being considered (0°–30° and 40°–50°). In contrast, a seasonal cycle of a factor of 2–5 in the upper 1000 m is found under storm tracks (30°–40°) in both hemispheres. Agreement between the mean dissipation rate calculated using Argo profiles and mean from microstructure profiles is within a factor of 2–3 for 96% of the comparisons. This is both congruous with the physical scaling underlying the finescale parameterization and indicates that the method is effective for estimating the regional mean dissipation rates in the open ocean.

Waterhouse, AF, MacKinnon JA, Nash JD, Alford MH, Kunze E, Simmons HL, Polzin KL, St Laurent LC, Sun OM, Pinkel R, Talley LD, Whalen CB, Huussen TN, Carter GS, Fer I, Waterman S, Naveira Garabato AC, Sanford TB, Lee CM.  2014.  Global patterns of diapycnal mixing from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 44(7):1854–1872.   10.1175/JPO-D-13-0104.1   Abstract

We present inferences of diapycnal diffusivity from a compilation of over 5200 microstructure profiles. As microstructure observations are sparse, these are supplemented with indirect measurements of mixing obtained from (i) Thorpe-scale overturns from moored profilers, a finescale parameterization applied to (ii) shipboard observations of upper ocean shear and (iii) strain as measured by profiling floats, and (iv) shear and strain from full-depth LADCP/CTD profiles. Vertical profiles of the turbulent dissipation rate are bottom-enhanced over rough topography and abrupt, isolated ridges. The geography of depth-integrated dissipation rate shows spatial variability related to internal-wave generation, suggesting one direct energy pathway to turbulence. The global-average diapycnal diffusivity below 1000-m depth is O(10-4 m2 s-1) and above 1000-m depth O(10-5 m2 s-1). The compiled microstructure observations sample a wide range of internal-wave power inputs and topographic roughness, providing a data set with which to estimate a representative global-average dissipation rate and diffusivity. However, there is strong regional variability in the ratio between local internal-wave generation and local dissipation. In some regions, the depth-integrated dissipation rate is comparable to the estimated power input into the local internal wave field. In a few cases, more internal wave power is dissipated than locally generated, suggesting remote internal wave sources. However, at most locations, the total power lost through turbulent dissipation is less than input into the local internal wave field. This suggests dissipation elsewhere, such as continental margins.

Waterhouse, AF, Tutak B, Valle-Levinson A, Sheng YP.  2013.  Influence of two tropical storms on the residual flow in a subtropical tidal inlet. Estuaries and Coasts. 36:1037-1053.   10.1007/s12237-013-9606-3   AbstractWebsite

The mechanisms responsible for the modulation of laterally sheared non-tidal (residual) exchange flow in a subtropical inlet, with special emphasis on tropical storm influence, are studied using a combination of current velocity profiles and hydrographic and meteorological data. The mouth of the inlet, St. Augustine Inlet in northeast Florida, is characterized by a 15-m-deep channel flanked by shoals (< 6 m deep). Residual flows across the inlet mouth were laterally sheared with inflow in the channel and outflow over the shoals. This pattern persisted during four separate semi-diurnal tidal cycle surveys effected over 3 years. During spring tides, residual exchange flows intensified relative to neap tides. Residual inflow in the channel only reversed immediately after tropical storms because of their extreme winds and major temporal changes in water level. After the residual flow reversed in the channel, along-channel baroclinicity drove gravitational circulation that persisted for 4.5 days and was enhanced by offshore winds. A depth-averaged along-basin momentum budget highlighted the importance of bottom friction to help balance the barotropic pressure gradient. The rest of the momentum budget was likely provided by advective terms. During and after tropical storms, accelerations from wind stress and baroclinic pressure gradients also became influential in the along-basin momentum budget.

Kelly, SM, Jones NL, Nash JD, Waterhouse AF.  2013.  The geography of semidiurnal mode-1 internal-tide energy loss. Geophysical Research Letters. 40(17):4689-4693.   10.1002/grl.50872   AbstractWebsite

The semidiurnal mode-1 internal tide receives 0.1–0.3 TW from the surface tide and is capable of propagating across ocean basins. The ultimate fate of mode-1 energy after long-distance propagation is poorly constrained by existing observations and numerical simulations. Here, global results from a two-dimensional semi-analytical model indicate that topographic scattering is inefficient at most locations deeper than 2500 m. Next, results from a one-dimensional linear model with realistic topography and stratification create a map of mode-1 scattering coefficients along the continental margins. On average, mode-1 internal tides lose about 60% of their energy upon impacting the continental margins: 20% transmits onto the continental shelf, 40% scatters to higher modes, and 40% reflects back to the ocean interior. These analyses indicate that the majority of mode-1 energy is likely lost at large topographic features (e.g., continental slopes, seamounts, and mid-ocean ridges), where it may drive elevated turbulent mixing.

Waterhouse, AF, Valle-Levinson A, Morales RA.  2012.  Tidal asymmetries in velocities and stratification over a bathymetric depression in a tropical inlet. Continental Shelf Research. 48:87-99.   10.1016/j.csr.2012.08.002   Abstract

Observations of current velocity, sea surface elevation and vertical profiles of density were obtained in a tropical inlet to determine the effect of a bathymetric depression (hollow) on the tidal flows. Surveys measuring velocity profiles were conducted over a diurnal tidal cycle with mixed spring tides during dry and wet seasons. Depth-averaged tidal velocities during ebb and flood tides behaved according to Bernoulli dynamics, as expected. The dynamic balance of depth-averaged quantities in the along-channel direction was governed by along-channel advection and pressure gradients with baroclinic pressure gradients only being important during the wet season. The vertical structure of the along-channel flow during flood tides exhibited a mid-depth maximum with lateral shear enhanced during the dry season as a result of decreased vertical stratification. During ebb tides, along-channel velocities in the vicinity of the hollow were vertically sheared with a weak return flow at depth due to choking of the flow on the seaward slope of the hollow. The potential energy anomaly, a measure of the amount of energy required to fully mix the water column, showed two peaks in stratification associated with ebb tide and a third peak occurring at the beginning of flood. After the first mid-ebb peak in stratification, ebb flows were constricted on the seaward slope of the hollow resulting in a bottom return flow. The sinking of surface waters and enhanced mixing on the seaward slope of the hollow reduced the potential energy anomaly after maximum ebb. The third peak in stratification during early flood occurred as a result of denser water entering the inlet at mid-depth. This dense water mixed with ambient deep waters increasing the stratification. Lateral shear in the along-channel flow across the hollow allowed trapping of less dense water in the surface layers further increasing stratification.

Valle-Levinson, A, Mariño-Tapia I, Enriquez C, Waterhouse AF.  2011.  Tidal variability of salinity and velocity fields related to intense point-source submarine groundwater discharges into the coastal ocean. Limnol. Oceangr.. 56:1213–1224.   10.4319/lo.2011.56.4.1213   Abstract

Velocity and hydrography measurements were used to determine the tidal variability and detailed structure of an intense (~ 43,200 m3 d−1) point-source submarine groundwater discharge from a spring located in the coastal ocean of the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. Measurements were obtained during a dry season with a combination of towed, profiling, and fixed instrumentation. The goal of these observations was to understand the effects of tides on the velocity and salinity structure of the water column that determine mixing and dispersion processes at spatial scales from meters to kilometers. Tidally averaged flows were characterized by an upward jet flanked by asymmetric downdrafts. The asymmetry was caused by a ~ 0.1 m s−1 ambient horizontal flow and by the ~ 40° angle (relative to the vertical) of discharge. The spatially averaged salinity distributions exhibited lowest values at low tides and highest values at high tides. This was attributed to tidal variations of hydrostatic pressure acting on the spring outflow, which allowed ∼1 m s−1 vertical flows at low tides and < 0.05 m s−1 vertical velocities at high tides. The vertical momentum balance consisted of upward accelerations produced by buoyancy and inertia from the spring and downward accelerations from gravity. On the basis of this balance and of energetic considerations, the vertical extent of the spring discharge likely depends on the density contrast between ambient and discharge waters (buoyancy forces), the upward speed of the spring (inertia forces), and the depth of the water column (hydrostatic pressure force), all of which vary with tides.

Waterhouse, AF, Valle-Levinson A, Winant CD.  2011.  Tides in a system of connected estuaries. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 41:946–959.   10.1175/2010JPO4504.1   Abstract

The spatial structure of tidal amplitude and phase in a simplified system of connected estuaries, an idealized version of Florida’s Intracoastal Waterway, is analyzed with a linear analytical model. This model includes friction, the earth’s rotation, and variable bathymetry. It is driven at the connection with the ocean by a co-oscillating tide. Model results compare well with observations of pressure and currents in a section of the Intracoastal Waterway on the east coast of Florida. The comparison suggests that the waterway is highly frictional, causing the amplitude of the water elevation and tidal velocity to decrease away from the inlets to a minimum in the middle of the waterway. The local phase relationship between velocity and water elevation changed nonlinearly from 90° with no friction to 45° with maximum friction. In moderately to highly frictional basins, the phase lag was consistently less than 45°.

Waterhouse, AF, Valle-Levinson A.  2010.  Transverse structure of subtidal flow in a weakly stratified subtropical tidal inlet. Continental Shelf Research. 30:281–292.   10.1016/j.csr.2009.11.008   Abstract

The transverse structure of exchange flows and lateral flows as well as their relationship to the subtidal variability are investigated in a subtropical inlet, Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida. Two surveys were executed during different phases of the tidal month to determine the spatial structure of subtidal exchange flows. Data from fixed moorings were used to depict the temporal variability of the spatial structure established in the surveys. The data suggested a tidally rectified pattern of net outflow in the channel and inflow over shoals with a negligible influence of streamwise baroclinic pressure gradients on the dynamics and slight modifications due to the wind. Onshore winds strengthened net inflows but weakened net outflows, rarely reversing them, while offshore winds increased net outflows and weakened net inflows. Curvature effects were found to be important in modifying secondary circulations. Slight modifications to the secondary flows were also caused by stream-normal baroclinicity during one survey. Most important, the intensity of the exchange flows was modulated by tides, with the largest exchange flows developing in response to the strongest tidal rectification of spring tides.

Safak, I, Sheremet A, Valle-Levinson A, Waterhouse AF.  2010.  Variation of overtides by wave enhanced bottom drag in a North Florida tidal inlet.. Continental Shelf Research. 30(18)   10.1016/j.csr.2010.09.007  
Murphy, PL, Waterhouse AF, Hesser TJ, Penko AM, Valle-Levinson A.  2009.  Subtidal flow and its variability at the entrance to a subtropical lagoon. Continental Shelf Research. 29:2318–2332.   10.1016/j.csr.2009.09.011   Abstract

Spatial and temporal variability of the subtidal exchange flow at West Pass, an inlet at the entrance to a subtropical lagoon (St. Andrew Bay, Florida), was studied using moored and towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic data. Towed and hydrographic measurements were captured over one diurnal tidal cycle to determine intratidal and spatial changes in flow. Hydrographic profiles over the tidal cycle showed that tidal straining modified density stratification asymmetrically, thus setting up the observed mean flow within the inlet. During the towed survey, the inlet's mean flow had a two-layer exchange structure that was moderately frictional and weakly influenced by Coriolis accelerations. Moored current profiles revealed the additional contribution to the dynamics from centrifugal accelerations. Along channel residual flows changed between unidirectional and exchange flow, depending on the forcing from the along-estuary wind stress and, to a lesser extent, the spring–neap tidal cycle. Increases in vertical shear in the along channel subtidal flow coincided with neap tides and rain pulses. Lateral subtidal flows showed the influence on the dynamics of centrifugal accelerations through a well-developed two-layer structure modulated in magnitude by the spring–neap tidal cycle.

Waterhouse, AF, Allen SE, Bowie AW.  2009.  Upwelling flow dynamics in long canyons at low Rossby number. Journal of Geophysical Research. 114   10.1029/2008JC004956   Abstract

Submarine canyons, topographic features incising the continental slope, vary in both shape and size. The dynamics of short canyons have been observed and described in the field, in the laboratory, and with numerical simulations. Flow within long canyons, such as Juan de Fuca canyon, located between Vancouver Island and Washington State in the Pacific Northwest, is less well understood. Physical models of both long and short canyons have been constructed to understand the upwelling dynamics in long canyons and how upwelling changes, as compared with the dynamics of short canyons, at low Rossby number. Stratification and rotation, both important parameters in determining the dynamics in canyons, can be controlled and scaled accordingly for replication of oceanic conditions. The physical model is spun up to an initial rotation rate, and the flow is forced by increasing the rotation rate over the equivalent of several days. Flow visualization is used to determine the strength and location of upwelling, the strength and mechanisms generating vorticity, as well as the differences between the flow within the long and short canyons. The pattern of upwelling between the two canyons is significantly different in the horizontal with upwelling occurring through the canyon head in the short canyon and upwelling occurring close to the mouth along the downstream rim in the long canyon. At high Rossby number, upwelling is similar in both the long and short canyon and is driven by advection. However, as Rossby number decreases, the flow in the long canyon is more strongly affected by the strong convergence of the isobaths near the canyon than by advection alone.