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Epel, D, Cole B, Hamdoun A, Thurber RV.  2006.  The sea urchin embryo as a model for studying efflux transporters: Roles and energy cost. Marine Environmental Research. 62:S1-S4.   10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.04.062   AbstractWebsite

We describe the use of the sea urchin as a model for studying efflux transporters and estimating energy cost for the cytotoxin protective system provided by these transporters. The unfertilized egg has low transport activity, which increases to a new steady state shortly after fertilization. Activity results from p-glycoprotein (p-gp) and MRP type transporters which protect the embryo from cytotoxic drugs that can disrupt cell division or induce apoptosis. The energy cost is estimated from a novel use of calcein-AM as a substrate; keeping 0.25 mu M substrate levels out of the cell utilizes only 0.023% of steady state respiration. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.