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2012
Shipp, LE, Hamdoun A.  2012.  ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development. Developmental Dynamics. 241:1111-1124.   10.1002/dvdy.23786   AbstractWebsite

Background: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG multidrug efflux transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Results: Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hr of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Conclusions: Embryos use many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively. Developmental Dynamics 241:11111124, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Campanale, JP, Hamdoun A.  2012.  Programmed reduction of ABC transporter activity in sea urchin germline progenitors. Development. 139:783-792.   10.1242/dev.076752   AbstractWebsite

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect embryos and stem cells from mutagens and pump morphogens that control cell fate and migration. In this study, we measured dynamics of ABC transporter activity during formation of sea urchin embryonic cells necessary for the production of gametes, termed the small micromeres. Unexpectedly, we found small micromeres accumulate 2.32 times more of the ABC transporter substrates calcein-AM, CellTrace RedOrange, BoDipy-verapamil and BoDipy-vinblastine, than any other cell in the embryo, indicating a reduction in multidrug efflux activity. The reduction in small micromere ABC transporter activity is mediated by a pulse of endocytosis occurring 20-60 minutes after the appearance of the micromeres - the precursors of the small micromeres. Treating embryos with phenylarsine oxide, an inhibitor of endocytosis, prevents the reduction of transporter activity. Tetramethylrhodamine dextran and cholera toxin B uptake experiments indicate that micromeres have higher rates of bulk and raft-associated membrane endocytosis during the window of transporter downregulation. We hypothesized that this loss of efflux transport could be required for the detection of developmental signaling molecules such as germ cell chemoattractants. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the inhibition of ABCB and ABCC-types of efflux transporters disrupts the ordered distribution of small micromeres to the left and right coelomic pouches. These results point to tradeoffs between signaling and the protective functions of the transporters.