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Shipp, LE, Hamdoun A.  2012.  ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development. Developmental Dynamics. 241:1111-1124.   10.1002/dvdy.23786   AbstractWebsite

Background: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG multidrug efflux transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Results: Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hr of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Conclusions: Embryos use many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively. Developmental Dynamics 241:11111124, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hamdoun, AM, Cheney DP, Cherr GN.  2003.  Phenotypic plasticity of HSP70 and HSP70 gene expression in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): Implications for thermal limits and induction of thermal tolerance. Biological Bulletin. 205:160-169.   10.2307/1543236   AbstractWebsite

Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, living at a range of tidal heights, routinely encounter large seasonal fluctuations in temperature. We demonstrate that the thermal limits of oysters are relatively plastic, and that these limits are correlated with changes in the expression of one family of heat-shock proteins (HSP70). Oysters were cultured in the intertidal zone, at two tidal heights, and monitored for changes in expression of cognate (HSC) and inducible (HSP) heat-shock proteins during the progression from spring through winter. We found that the "control" levels (i.e., prior to laboratory heat shock) of HSC77 and HSC72 are positively correlated with increases in ambient temperature and were significantly higher in August than in January. The elevated level of HSCs during the summer was associated with moderate, 2-3 degreesC, increases in the upper thermal limits for survival. We measured concomitant increases in the threshold temperatures (T-on) required for induction of HSP70. Total hsp70 mRNA expression reflected the seasonal changes in the expression of inducible but not cognate members of the HSP70 family of proteins. A potential cost of increased T-on in the summer is that there was no extension of the upper thermal limits for survival (i.e., induction of thermotolerance) after sublethal heat shock at temperatures that were sufficient to induce thermotolerance during the winter months.