Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world

Citation:
Hamdoun, A, Epel D.  2007.  Embryo stability and vulnerability in an always changing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104:1745-1750.

Date Published:

Feb

Keywords:

amino-acids, bicoid protein, caenorhabditis-elegans, developmental biology, dna methylation, drosophila embryo, fertilization envelope, molecular chaperones, morphological evolution, p-glycoprotein

Abstract:

Contrary to the view that embryos and larvae are the most fragile stages of life, development is stable under real-world conditions. Early cleavage embryos are prepared for environmental vagaries by having high levels of cellular defenses already present in the egg before fertilization. Later in development, adaptive responses to the environment either buffer stress or produce alternative developmental phenotypes. These buffers, defenses, and alternative pathways set physiological limits for development under expected conditions; teratology occurs when embryos encounter unexpected environmental changes and when stress exceeds these limits. Of concern is that rapid anthropogenic changes to the environment are beyond the range of these protective mechanisms.

Notes:

n/a

Website

DOI:

10.1073/pnas.0610108104