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Gershunov, A, Michaelsen J.  1996.  Vertical variability of water vapor in the midlatitude upper troposphere. Contributions to Atmospheric Physics [Beitraege zur Physik der Atmosphaere.], Wiesbaden, Germany. 69:205-214. AbstractWebsite

Radiative, dynamical and phase-change considerations of tropospheric moisture, all point to moisture in the upper troposphere as a major determinant of the global climate. Hemispheric-scale vertical variability of upper-tropospheric moisture is observed through a multivariate statistical analysis of three years of monthly mean SAGE-II data for 1986-88. Midlatitude zonally averaged vertical variability of moisture in the upper troposphere is separated into coherent modes using principal components analysis. Bulk vertical variations in the upper troposphere are separated from a dynamical mode of variability representing vertical moisture gradient and horizontal advection. The procedure is repeated for the northern and southern midlatitudes. We discuss the vertical structure and temporal variability of the meaningful modes and observe a north-south hemispheric asymmetry in the characteristics of the vertical moisture variability. It is hypothesized that midlatitude wave cyclones are responsible for the poleward and vertical transport of water vapor to and in the midlatitude upper troposphere.