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White, WB, Gershunov A, Annis JL, McKeon G, Syktus J.  2004.  Forecasting Australian drought using southern, hemisphere modes of sea-surface temperature variability. International Journal of Climatology. 24:1911-1927.   10.1002/joc.1091   AbstractWebsite

Drought of 3 to 7 years' duration has devastated the flora, fauna, and regional economies in rangeland grazing districts over eastern and central Australia every 15 to 25 years throughout the 20th century, in some cases degrading the land beyond recover. Recently, these drought and degradation episodes have been associated with a global interdecadal oscillation (IDO) of period 15 to 25 years. This IDO signal brought cooler sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) to the western extra-tropical South Pacific Ocean in association with reduced onshore transport of moisture over eastern/central Australia during the summer monsoon. Here, we utilize optimized canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to forecase principal components of summer precipitation (PCP) anomalies over Australia from the persistence of principal components that dominate spring SST anomalies across the Southern Hemisphere. These summer PCP forecasts are cross-validated with the CCA forecast model for each year independent of that year's variability. Resulting cross-validated forecasts are best over Queensland, correlating with those observed at >0.40 from 1890 through to 2001, significant at >99% confidence level. More importantly, 6 of 10 drought episodes (but only three of seven degradation episodes) observed in eastern/central Australia during the 20th century are forecast. Copyright (C) 2004 Royal Meteorological Society.

Panorska, AK, Gershunov A, Kozubowski TJ.  2007.  From diversity to volatility: probability of daily precipitation extremes. Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences. ( Tsonis AA, Elsner JB, Eds.).:465-484.: Springer New York   10.1007/978-0-387-34918-3_26   Abstract

A sensible stochastic model is required to correctly estimate the risk associated with daily precipitation extremes. The same requirement holds for studying high-frequency precipitation extremes in the context of climate variability and change. Results derived from probability theory were used to develop an efficient automated scheme to distinguish between heavy and exponential precipitation probability density function (PDF) tails in hundreds of daily station records spanning five decades over the North American continent. These results suggest that, at a vast majority of the stations, daily extreme precipitation probabilities do not decay exponentially, but more closely follow a power law. This means that statistical distributions traditionally used to model daily rainfall (e.g. exponential, Weibull, Gamma, lognormal) generally underestimate the probabilities of extremes. The degree of this distortion, i.e. volatility, depends on regional and seasonal climatic peculiarities. By examining geographical and seasonal patterns in extreme precipitation behavior, the authors show that the degree of volatility is determined regionally by the diversity in precipitation-producing mechanisms, or storm type diversity. Exponential tails are geographically limited to regions where precipitation falls almost exclusively from similar meteorological systems and where light probability tails are observed in all seasons. Topography plays an important role in flattening or fattening PDF tails by limiting the spatial extent of certain systems while orographically altering their precipitation amounts. Results presented here represent the first logical step towards choosing appropriate PDFs at various locations by specifying their regionally relevant family. Heavy tailed models are generally superior to those from the exponential family and can lead to more realistic estimates of extreme event probabilities, return periods, n-year events, and design limits. The correct choice of PDF is essential to safe engineering design, hazard assessment and other applications, as well as for fostering further investigations of hydrologic weather extremes and climate.

Cayan, DR, Das T, Pierce DW, Barnett TP, Tyree M, Gershunov A.  2010.  Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107:21271-21276.   10.1073/pnas.0912391107   AbstractWebsite

Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.