Climatic influences on Midwest drought during the twentieth century

White, WB, Gershunov A, Annis J.  2008.  Climatic influences on Midwest drought during the twentieth century. Journal of Climate. 21:517-531.

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changing solar irradiance, north pacific, oscillation, pacific basin, precipitation, predictability, sea-surface temperatures, united-states, upper ocean, variability


The Dustbowl Era drought in the 1930s was the principal Midwest drought of the twentieth century, occurring primarily in late spring-summer [April-August (AMJJA)] when > 70% of annual rainfall normally occurred. Another major Midwest drought occurred in the 1950s but primarily in fall-early winter [September-December (SOND)] when normal rainfall was similar to 1/2 as much. Optimized canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is applied to forecast AMJJA and SOND Midwest rainfall variability in cross-validated fashion from antecedent DJF and JJA sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the surrounding oceans. These CCA models simulate (i. e., hindcast, not forecast) the Dustbowl Era drought of the 1930s and four of seven secondary AMJJA droughts (>= 3-yr duration) during the twentieth century, and the principal Midwest drought of the 1950s and one of three secondary SOND droughts. Diagnosing the model canonical correlations finds the superposition of tropical Pacific cool phases of the quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO) and interdecadal oscillation (IDO) responsible for secondary droughts in AMJJA when ENSO was weak and finds the eastern equatorial Pacific cool phase of the ENSO responsible for secondary droughts during SOND when ENSO was strong. These explain why secondary droughts in AMJJA occurred more often (nearly every decade) and were of longer duration than secondary droughts in SOND when decadal drought tendencies were usually interrupted by ENSO. These diagnostics also find the AMJJA Dustbowl Era drought in the 1930s and the principal SOND drought in the 1950s driven primarily by different phases (i. e., in quadrature) of the pentadecadal signal in the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO).